Presentation on theme: "PESTICIDES IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT by: Sim A. Cuyson Paper presented during 38 th Annual Scientific Conference 20-23 March 2007."— Presentation transcript:
PESTICIDES IN SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT by: Sim A. Cuyson Paper presented during 38 th Annual Scientific Conference 20-23 March 2007 Bohol Tropics Resort Tagbilaran City, Bohol
NEGATIVE PERCEPTIONS Negative articles > positive by 40:1 Pesticide risks tend to be overestimated People are generally sensitive to health and food issues
We make risk-benefit decisions throughout our lives Paracetamol is one of the most common analgesic drugs used worldwide. Yet it is three times more toxic than the herbicide glyphosate. We accept the risks of people misusing paracetamol due to the convenience of such easy access to pain relief. Caffeine is relatively lethal, yet most people including coffee drinkers are not aware that there is a 50% chance that 15 grams of caffeine would kill a grown up person. There is no warning prescribed on the label.
CHEMICALORAL LD50 TO RATS (mg/kg body weight) Nicotine50 Caffeine200 Aspirin1750 Paracetamol1205 Table Salt3000 DDT (Insecticide)115 Methyl parathion (Insecticide)6-50 Metamidophos (Insecticide)10-50 Chlorpyrifos (Insecticide)100-300 Cypermethrin (Insecticide)250-4125 TABLE 1– COMPARATIVE TOXICITY OF SOME CHEMICALS
PRIMARY BENEFITS SECONDARY BENEFITS AGRIC PRODUCE Improved yields, Quality, Appearance, safety, and shelf life Vibrant Retailer networks FARMING COMMUNITIES Farm revenues, Nutrition and health, Food safety and security, Wider range of viable crops, Better quality of life, longer life expectancy; Labor freed for other tasks ENERGY NEEDS Reduced drudgery and fuel used for weeding, and reduced soil disturbance NATIONAL Agricultural economy, Food safety and security, Export revenues, Nutrition and health, Human productivity, Reduced soil erosion, and moisture loss, Fewer moves to cities PREVENTING PROBLEMS Reduced pest Epidemics; Pests contained geographically; Invasive species controlled GLOBAL Assures safe food supply, Diverse produce, Less pressure on uncropped land, less greenhouse gas, fewer pest introductions, Biodiversity conserved Fig.1 – Benefits From The Use of Pesticides To Control Plant Pests (Insects, Diseases, and Weeds) and Vectors of Plant Diseases (Cooper and Dobson, 2006)
Benefits From Control of Crop /Agricultural Pests Pests cost developing countries billions of dollars in national income (FAO, 2004) Farm and post harvest losses contribute to hunger and malnutrition in many of these countries
The Rice Yield Gap- Production Constraints* *101 Facts about rice in the Phil. BV Tolentino, et al Insect Pest & Diseases35% Weeds9% Poor Water Management26% Poor Seed & Seed Management9% Improper Fertilizer & Soil Mgt.21%
Some Major Local Benefits Weed control in direct seeded rice Control of golden apple snail, an invasive specie Black Sigatoka control in cavendish banana Control of mango insect pests and diseases Economic production of vegetable crops
Control of corn borers and other pests reduces aflatoxin development Herbicides in zero/minimum tillage help reduce soil erosion specially in sloping land.
PRIMARY BENEFITS SECONDARY BENEFITS Fig. 2 –Benefits From Use Of Pesticides To Control Human and Livestock Disease Vectors and Nuisance Organisms (Cooper and Dobson, 2006) PEOPLE Lives saved, suffering reduced, disturbance reduced LIVESTOCK Animals saved, suffering reduced, increased yield, increased quality PREVENTING PROBLEMS Reduced disease epidemics, Diseases contained geographically RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES Life expectancy, quality of life, nutrition and health, food safety/security, individual productivity reduced vet/medicine costs, livestock revenues NATIONAL Rural and urban economy, national productivity, habitable areas increased, fewer move to cities, export livestock revenues, tourism revenues GLOBAL International markets, reduced international spread of diseases, safe livestock imports, habitable areas increase
Public Health Benefits from Control of Human and Livestock Disease Vectors and Nuisance Organisms Malaria kills 5,000 daily worldwide (Ross, 2005); Still present in 60 provinces, most serious in Palawan;Use of insecticide treated mosquito nets Dengue mosquitos controlled through localized spraying and fogging
Nuisance pests such as flies and mosquitos could have severe impact on tourism if not controlled Control of vectors of livestock diseases and ectoparasites results in healthy and productive livestock and poultry Benefits From Control of Structural Pests and Organisms that Harm Other Human Activities
PRIMARY BENEFITS SECONDARY BENEFITS Fig. 3 –Benefits from use of Pesticides To Prevent or Control Organism That Harm Structures and Other Human Activities TRANSPORT SYSTEMS Views unobstructed, Vegetation hazards Prevented, Roots/damp damage reduced RURAL AND URBAN COMMUNITIES Transport safety, Improved health and fitness, Improved amenities Quality of life Reduced stress, Reduced maintenance costs SPORT AND RECREATION Turf pests controlled, garden and ornamental pests controlled NATIONAL Quality of life improved, Pleasant urban areas, Tourism revenue Maintenance costs reduced BUILT ENVIRONMENT Wood protected, other materials protected including paint, plastic, paper, masonry, leather and adhesives GLOBAL Shade trees reduce Global warning, Timber remains a viable building material
Termite control Roach and Rat Control Benefits from Control of Structural Pests and Organisms that Harm Other Human Activities Herbicides used in maintenance of transport systems (roads, railways, waterways)
Maintenance of sports and recreational grounds, golf courses, and domestic gardens
Concern about food safety (residues) driving the demand Niche market Lower yields, so production highly dependent on premium price Difficult to assure quantity, quality, appearance, esp. for export market Doubtful if it can sustain world’s growing population (Oerke, 2004) ? Organic agriculture ?
1. Research and development 2. Integrated Crop Management approach incorporating integrated pest management strategies, together with other stakeholders 3. Strict product life cycle approach to Stewardship (Adherence to FAO Code of Conduct, Safe Use, GAP, Storage & Transport, Emergency Response, Environmental Management) Industry’s Role in Sustainable Agriculture
2.Health and Safety of the Children as a Vital Component of Sustainable Agriculture in Benguet
Project in partnership with Helen Keller International in Wao and Saguiran, Lanao Del Sur. Addressing nutrition problem Growing of nutritious crops/fruits Nutrition Education
SAGIP-LUPA, a Soil Conservation Project in partnership with UP consultants Zero/Minimum Tillage system to reduce soil erosion in sloping land Project sites: Banana Plantation in Davao City Marginal corn farmers Lantacan Lancare Farmers Association in Bukidnon Six sites in Luzon
“Humanity in the 21st century can banish hunger, end nutritional deficits in children, and save virtually all of the remaining wild lands in the process. But there are only two ways to do it: either murder four billion people, or use chemicals and biotechnology to maintain and increase yields on land already under farming” Dennis Avery, Director of the Centre for Global Food Issues, Hudson Institute, US, 2000
“If pesticides were abolished, the lives saved would be outnumbered by a factor of around 1,000 by the lives lost due to poorer diets. Secondary penalties would be massive environmental damage due to the land needs of less productive farming, and a financial cost of around 20 billion US dollar” Bjorn Lomborg, The Skeptical Environmentalist, Cambridge U. Press, 2000
Global Poverty poses the biggest threat to the environment. We need chemicals to produce food, medicine and shelter. However, we need to look for signals for possible adverse effects of chemicals in order to mitigate and manage those potential threats” (Dr. Klaus Topfer, Director General of UNEP, April 2002)