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PESTICIDE ISSUES “We need to recognize that pest control is basically an ecological, not a chemical problem” Robert L. Rudd (text, p. 516)

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Presentation on theme: "PESTICIDE ISSUES “We need to recognize that pest control is basically an ecological, not a chemical problem” Robert L. Rudd (text, p. 516)"— Presentation transcript:

1 PESTICIDE ISSUES “We need to recognize that pest control is basically an ecological, not a chemical problem” Robert L. Rudd (text, p. 516)

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3 To spray or not to spray… The decision is…. ECONOMIC!

4 Pesticide Economics Economic threshold—level where economic losses caused by pest damage equal cost of applying a pesticide Spraying beyond threshold… -can increase pest resistance and costs Ever-increasing levels? Pesticide Treadmill Increased pesticide use (above “needed” levels) can also result from: Spraying extra to make fruits/veggies pretty (cosmetic spraying)

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6 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT I ntegrated P est M anagement (IPM) is an approach to managing pests such as insects, diseases, weeds and animals by integrating appropriate: Physical/Cultivation Biological Chemical …tactics that are safe, profitable and environmentally compatible.

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8 First Level of Pesticide Alternatives: Cultivation practices Crop rotation Tree breaks/plant breaks Polyculture—intercropping, agroforestry, polyvarietal planting Planting “trap crops” Genetic/Cultivated solutions—plants “resistant” to pests/diseases BUT the pests evolve!!

9 topics/environmentalissues/ipm

10 Biologically-based Pesticide Alternatives Biological Solutions Natural enemies—ladybugs, parasitic wasps What are pros and cons of this? Good: focuses on target, self-perpetuating, minimize genetic resistance in pests Bad: takes years of research, may be hard to mass produce, can be done incorrectly! What about introducing NON-NATIVE species??

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13 Sex and Hormones Releasing sterilized males into the wild Both work, but costly and time-consuming on research end Developmental stops—releasing hormones into the wild to prevent an insect from developing

14 Chemical Methods – Two tiers First: Naturally-occuring: Insecticidal soaps, rotenoids, Bt, cayenne pepper Bt – bacillus thuringensis toxin from soil bacteria that is naturally toxic to many insect species. Also in GM corn Only then, as a last resort: Conventional pesticides – Atrazine, organophosphates, carbamates (organo- chlorine compounds like DDT bioaccumulate, biomagnify and are used much less now)

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