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Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 1 Twenty years' experience with reduced agrochemical inputs: Effect on farm economics, water quality, biodiversity.

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Presentation on theme: "Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 1 Twenty years' experience with reduced agrochemical inputs: Effect on farm economics, water quality, biodiversity."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 1 Twenty years' experience with reduced agrochemical inputs: Effect on farm economics, water quality, biodiversity and environment Lise Nistrup Jørgensen Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences Research Centre Flakkebjerg 4200 Slagelse, Denmark

3 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 2 Important events for Pesticides in DK : Increase in use of pesticides, 1986: First Danish pesticide action plan (50% reduction over 10 years) Since 1993: Findings of pesticides in ground water 1994: Introduction of prohibition list 1996: Tax on pesticides increased from 3% to 13/27% 1997: Status on 1. Pesticide action plan : Bichel committee 1999: Tax increase to 33% and 54% 2000: 2 nd pesticide action plan (target: TFI =2) 2004: 3 rd pesticide action plan (Target:TFI = 1.7)

4 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 3 The main content of the Action Plans Reduction of the treatment frequency (from 2,6 to 1,7) Establishment of ”buffer zones” along classified watercourses Strict and critical approval procedure for registration Tax on pesticides Education and training Voluntary plan with support from advisors and research

5 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 4 Definition of Treatment Frequency Index Number of times an agricultural area in rotation can be treated with a full dose. Calculation is based on sold amounts of pesticides Each active ingredient has a defined ”normal dose” of active ingredients, which often is equal to the full lable dose If you use 2 x half dose, it only counts as one.

6 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 5 Treatment Frequency Index (TFI) of pesticides used in agriculture in the period Target 1,3 by 1997 Target 2,0 by 2003 Target 1,7 by 2009

7 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 6 Guiding Target points in different crops To be reached before 2009

8 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 7 Kg active ingredients sold for agricultural use in the period

9 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 8 NachrichtenNachrichten Nachrichtenbl. 55, 2003

10 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 9 TFI calculated at farm level during 3 years in winter wheat. Average of 316 farmers..

11 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 10 Percent direct crop loss in a 0-pesticide scenario % crop loss

12 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 11 Relation between TFI and income at farmers level per ha TFI Dkk/ha +-scenario ++scenario = 400 euro

13 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 12 Reduction potential as an average for the country (Ørum 2004)

14 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 13 Margin over fungicide cost for different fungicide dosages applied at GS

15 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 14 TFI and average dose using fungicides in winter wheat TFI or Dose Farmstat/Kleffmann/ EPA

16 Field inspection

17 Recommendation page 26 EUR32 EUR

18 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 17 Principles for changes in one dose response curves

19 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 18 Money given to increase dissemination activities carried out by the advisory service Focus on getting information from research to farmers Improving existing prognoses and warning systems on a national and regional basis Establishing demonstrations farms Calculate TFI at farm level (Target points) Establishing of farmer’s field groups with focus on low pesticide input

20 TFI and farmsize 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 n=828n=813n=811n=797n=794n=796n=787n=786n=785n=786 Ha < >138 Treatment frequency index (TFI) TFITaget Danish Advisory Service

21 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 20 Re-evaluation of pesticides. The re-evaluation had as a consequence that more than 40% of all pesticides were withdrawn between Atrazin, cyanazin, trifluralin, hexazinon, dichlorbenil, MCPA, mechlorprop, diclorprop, 2,4,D, propachlor, isoprotoron vinclozolin, iprodion, captan, fenarimol, thiabendazole, thiaphanat-methyl, thiram, guazatine, ziram, dazomet, propineb, fenpropimorph paraquat, dichlorvos, deltamethrin, diazinon, lindane, chlorfenvinphos, esfenvalerat

22 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 21 Index of load for acute oral mammalian and bird toxicity from to Toxic load Henning Clausen. EPA

23 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 22 Index of load for acute oral mammalian, bird and fish toxicity from to Toxic load Henning Clausen. EPA

24 Survey of field flora in: Several common weed species have become more common in major crops during the last 15 years. Flora changes in the light of low dose strategies Chr. Andreasen 2005

25 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 24 Changes in weed population in winter wheat to 1989 Frequency Chr. Andreasen 2005

26 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 25 Changes in weed population in winter wheat 1970 to 2004 Frequency Chr. Andreasen 2005

27 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 26 3 years trials on 5 farms – plots of 6 ha.(wheat, barley sugar beet) Dose of herbicides and insecticides No.of plants left/m2 % increase in weed species Increase in insects Increase in number of birds Average of morning and evening counts Full300 Half4816% 18% more skylarks 43% more seed eaters quarter5528% More aphids More beneficials 20-25% more skylarks % more seed eaters Esbjerg et al 2003

28 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 27 Species, which were positively influenced by low dose strategies

29 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 28 % findings of pesticides in smaller wells above 0.1 μg /l Source: GEUS analysed samples

30 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 29 Conclusion on water pollution. Smaller wells and ground water : –Approved products: 2-6% with >0.1μg/l –Prohibited products: 12% with >0.1 μg/l Most finding are done in 1-20 m depth From the annual % of wells with concentrations exceeding MAC declined from 10 to 5%. Major findings –BAM (from dichlobenil), atrazine and triazin- metabolites dominate.

31 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 30 Conclusion I Difficult to measure impact of actions plans on nature and biodiversity. Indications that 20 years policy give more “nature”. Very toxic products have been prohibited. Prohibition of mobile and persistent pesticides have minimized the risk of polluting our ground water. Difficult to create a “real” environmental index for pesticides. TFI still the “best”

32 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences 31 Conclusion II Action plans have had impact on farmers perception on the use of pesticides. More environmental awareness. Cheap for the farmers to ensure their crop with pesticides beyond an economical optimal Difficult to reach TFI= 1.7; Reductions beyond TFI=1.7 requires considerable changes of common crop practise. Need constant support from research and advisors in order to give the farmer the necessary support. Danish Farmers want mutual rules for farmers in EU.


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