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Pesticide Formulation Differences Brian Jones Agronomy Extension.

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Presentation on theme: "Pesticide Formulation Differences Brian Jones Agronomy Extension."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pesticide Formulation Differences Brian Jones Agronomy Extension

2 Introduction Need to understand formulations  Storage  Characteristics  Mixing and loading  Application 16 types  Pros/Cons  Relate these to everyday products

3 #1. Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC) Emulsion; fine liquid particles suspended in another liquid Forms cloudy mixture when mixed with water Homogenized milk Dual II Magnum Prowl 3.3EC PROS: -Easy to pour and measure -Not abrasive -Little agitation required CONS: -Easily absorbed through skin -Caustic to rubber and plastic -Some crops more sensitive -May cause pitting or discoloration

4 #2. Solution (S) /Concentrated Solution (C or LC) Liquid that will form a true aqueous solution Banvel / Clarity 4S Roundup Weathermax 4.5S PROS: -Easy to pour, measure and mix -Won’t clog equipment -No agitation necessary CONS: -Not commonly available -Can be absorbed through skin

5 #3. Flowable (F or L) Fine solid particles dispersed (suspended) in a liquid Atrazine 4L Princep 4L Callisto 4SC PROS: -Easy to handle -Generally won’t clog sprayer -Low inhalation risk -Low risk of phytotoxic effects CONS: -Moderate agitation required -May leave visible residue -Can be abrasive to equipment

6 #4. Dust (D) Fine solid particles Ready to use Not water-soluble Copper Dragon Easy Garden 10% PROS: -Ready to use -Can be used where moisture may cause damage -Good coverage (if applied right) CONS: -Drift potential -Residues may blow away -Difficult to apply uniformly -Inhalation risk, may irritate eyes, nose or throat

7 #5. Granule (G) Small particles Ready to use Not water-soluble Diazinon, Ant Killer Lorsban 15G “Weed and Feed” PROS: -Ready to use -Low risk of drift -Low risk of handler exposure -Simple equipment for application -Can pass through foliage to soil CONS -Do not stick to foliage or non-level -May need to incorporate or water-in -May pose a hazard to birds -Bulky

8 #6. Pellet (P or PS) Formed small- to medium-sized particles Ready to use Not water-soluble DowAgro 1/8” “blanks” Spike 20P PROS: -Ready to use -Low risk of drift -Low risk of handler exposure -Simple equipment for application -Can pass through foliage to soil CONS -Do not stick to foliage or nonlevel -May need to incorporate or water-in -Bulky

9 #7. Wettable Powder (W or WP) Relatively insoluble fine- particle solid that forms a suspension Not a true solution Karmex Pounce 25WP PROS: -Easy to store and transport -Low skin exposure risk -Less likely to burn plants than EC -Less likely to clog equipment than EC CONS: -Often very concentrated -Not easy to measure and mix -Inhalation risk -Can be abrasive to equipment -May clog nozzles and screens -Requires good and constant agitation -May leave visible residues on surfaces

10 #8. Water-Dispersible Granules (WDG) / Dry Flowables (DF) Small particles of a wettable powder Will form a suspension Not a true solution Option 35WDG Steadfast 75DF PROS: -Easy to handle, can be poured from container -Low skin exposure and inhalation risk -Safer to handle than dust or powder -Easy to store and transport -Less likely to burn or clog equipment CONS: -Agitation required -Can be abrasive to equipment -May clog nozzles and screens -May leave visible residues on surfaces

11 #9. Soluble Powder (SP or WSP) Fine- or medium- particle sized solid that will dissolve in water to form a true solution Roundup Pro Dry Ambush 25WSP PROS: -Easy to store and transport -Low skin exposure risk -No agitation needed once in solution -Tend to not be abrasive to equip. -Will not clog filters or screens CONS: -Inhalation risk -Often very concentrated -Not many pesticides available

12 #10. Water Soluble Packaging (Gel Pack) A semi-solid colloid (jelly) packaged in water- soluble film. Buctril Gel “Toss and go” packaging

13 #11. Aerosol (A) Fine airborne particles/droplets plus a propellant D-Con House and Garden Bug repellent (DEET)

14 #12. Bait (B) Attractant/feeding stimulant + food + pesticide MaxAttrax Ant Feeding Attack brand Beetle Trap Trails End Molluscicide

15 #13. Invert Emulsion (IE) An emulsion in which the active ingredient is dispersed in oil rather than in water Usually a thick mixture Certain roadside non-crop products

16 #14. Microencapsulated (ME) Coated or encased units – time release Prowl H2O MicroTech BioBarrier

17 #15. Ready-to-Use (RTU) Solution or suspension diluted to use rate Roundup RTU

18 #16. ULV/Fog/Smoke Fine particles/ droplets suspended in air Raid concentrate fogger

19 QUESTIONS?

20 Mixing and Loading Mixing and loading order can be determined by the formulation if not specified on the label.

21 Formulation Tank Mixing Order 1. Fill tank ¼ to ½ full with water or carrier and begin agitation

22 Formulation Tank Mixing Order 1. Fill tank ¼ to ½ full with water or carrier and begin agitation 2. Adjuvants used for anti-foaming, buffers, compatibility, AMS, etc.

23 Formulation Tank Mixing Order 1. Fill tank ¼ to ½ full with water or carrier and begin agitation 2. Adjuvants used for anti-foaming, buffers, compatibility, AMS, etc. 3. Dry products (WP, WDG, DF, WSP)

24 Formulation Tank Mixing Order 1. Fill tank ¼ to ½ full with water or carrier and begin agitation 2. Adjuvants used for anti-foaming, buffers, compatibility, AMS, etc. 3. Dry products (WP, WDG, DF, WSP) 4. Liquid Flowables (F or L)

25 Formulation Tank Mixing Order 1. Fill tank ¼ to ½ full with water or carrier and begin agitation 2. Adjuvants used for anti-foaming, buffers, compatibility, AMS, etc. 3. Dry products (WP, WDG, DF, WSP) 4. Liquid Flowables (F or L) 5. Microencapsulated (ME)

26 Formulation Tank Mixing Order 1. Fill tank ¼ to ½ full with water or carrier and begin agitation 2. Adjuvants used for anti-foaming, buffers, compatibility, AMS, etc. 3. Dry products (WP, WDG, DF, WSP) 4. Liquid Flowables (F or L) 5. Microencapsulated (ME) 6. Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC)

27 Formulation Tank Mixing Order 1. Fill tank ¼ to ½ full with water or carrier and begin agitation 2. Adjuvants used for anti-foaming, buffers, compatibility, AMS, etc. 3. Dry products (WP, WDG, DF, WSP) 4. Liquid Flowables (F or L) 5. Microencapsulated (ME) 6. Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC) 7. Liquid solutions (S, C, LC) usually clear

28 Formulation Tank Mixing Order 1. Fill tank ¼ to ½ full with water or carrier and begin agitation 2. Adjuvants used for anti-foaming, buffers, compatibility, AMS, etc. 3. Dry products (WP, WDG, DF, WSP) 4. Liquid Flowables (F or L) 5. Microencapsulated (ME) 6. Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC) 7. Liquid solutions (S, C, LC) usually clear 8. Adjuvants used for herbicide efficacy enhancement (COC, NIS, MSO)

29 Formulation Tank Mixing Order 1. Fill tank ¼ to ½ full with water or carrier and begin agitation 2. Adjuvants used for anti-foaming, buffers, compatibility, AMS, etc. 3. Dry products (WP, WDG, DF, WSP) 4. Liquid Flowables (F or L) 5. Microencapsulated (ME) 6. Emulsifiable Concentrates (EC) 7. Liquid solutions (S, C, LC) usually clear 8. Adjuvants used for herbicide efficacy enhancement (COC, NIS, MSO) 9. Add water/carrier to desired level

30 Remember acronym W.A.L.E.S. W – WP, WDG, DF, WSP A – Agitate L – Liquid Flowables E – Emulsifiable Concentrates S – Surfactants

31 Notes on Sprayer Mixing Start with a clean tank. Leftovers may cause unforeseen problems Always use clean water Make a slurry of each dry formulation before adding to tank Agitate thoroughly before adding each product Spray solution and clean tank after each days use

32 Certain insecticides and/or fungicides can be tank mixed with herbicides—check the product label If you question the compatibility of a tank mixture, use the JAR TEST Notes on Sprayer Mixing

33 Jar Test Better to have gel, precipitate, sludge, or concrete in a jar rather than in your sprayer, hoses, pumps, and tips.

34 Jar Test Labeled combinations of herbicides with fertilizers, insecticides, and fungicides are difficult to find.

35 Always wear PPE when pouring or mixing pesticides. Perform this test in a safe area away from food and sources of ignition. Pesticide used in this test should be put into the spray tank when completed and applied to a labeled site. Rinse all utensils and jars, and pour rinse water into spray tank. Jar Test Safety

36 1. In two 1-quart jars, add 1 pint of carrier in each. Jar Test

37 1. In two 1-quart jars, add 1 pint of carrier in each. 2. Add ¼ teaspoon of compatibility agent to one jar (equivalent to 2 pints per 100 gal). Jar Test

38 1. In two 1-quart jars, add 1 pint of carrier in each. 2. Add ¼ teaspoon of compatibility agent to one jar (equivalent to 2 pints per 100 gal). 3. To each jar, add the required amount (see below) of pesticide in proper order. Jar Test

39 1. In two 1-quart jars, add 1 pint of carrier in each. 2. Add ¼ teaspoon of compatibility agent to one jar (equivalent to 2 pints per 100 gal). 3. To each jar, add the required amount (see below) of pesticide in proper order. 4. When all ingredients have been added, shake both jars for 15 seconds and allow to stand for at least 15 minutes. Then inspect for flakes, sludge, gels, etc., which may indicate incompatibility. Jar Test

40 1. In two 1-quart jars, add 1 pint of carrier in each. 2. Add ¼ teaspoon of compatibility agent to one jar (equivalent to 2 pints per 100 gal). 3. To each jar, add the required amount (see below) of pesticide in proper order. 4. When all ingredients have been added, shake both jars for 15 seconds and allow to stand for at least 15 minutes. Then inspect for flakes, sludge, gels, etc., which may indicate incompatibility. 5. Compare the two jars, one with the compatibility agent and one without. Jar Test

41 1. In two 1-quart jars, add 1 pint of carrier in each. 2. Add ¼ teaspoon of compatibility agent to one jar (equivalent to 2 pints per 100 gal). 3. To each jar, add the required amount (see below) of pesticide in proper order. 4. When all ingredients have been added, shake both jars for 15 seconds and allow to stand for at least 15 minutes. Then inspect for flakes, sludge, gels, etc., which may indicate incompatibility. 5. Compare the two jars, one with the compatibility agent and one without. 6. Decide if the mixture can be sprayed with or without the compatibility agent or even at all. Jar Test

42 For dry rates (16oz per lb)  1 lb/A = 1.5 teaspoons For liquid rates (16 fl oz = 1 pint; 2 pts = 1 qt)  1 pint/A = 0.5 teaspoon  1 qt/A = 1.0 teaspoon Required Amounts of Pesticide for Jar Tests

43 THANKS! QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS? Presentation Available At:


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