Presentation on theme: "Biorational Pesticides: What they are and how you can use them in IPM WGGA 2006 S. P. Schell and A. V. Latchininsky S. P. Schell and A. V. Latchininsky."— Presentation transcript:
Biorational Pesticides: What they are and how you can use them in IPM WGGA 2006 S. P. Schell and A. V. Latchininsky S. P. Schell and A. V. Latchininsky University of Wyoming
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Definition: No single, clear definition. EPA identifies biorational pesticides as having “fundamentally different modes of action” and “lower risks of adverse effects” than conventional (i.e. neurotoxin) pesticides.
Other Terms How do “Reduced-Risk”, Minimum Risk Pesticides and Biopesticides fit into the biorational definition?
More Definitions: “Reduced-Risk” can be conventional pesticides that have: low toxicity, low risk of groundwater contamination, low pest resistance, are effective and compatible with IPM. Manufacturers aren’t allowed to label products as “reduced-risk” and not all labeled uses may be considered as “reduced-risk”. (Meisterpro Crop Protection Handbook lists the reduced– risk pesticides)
More Definitions: Minimum-Risk pesticides are exempt from EPA registration. They are currently listed at: http://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/biopesticides/ regtools/25b_list.htm mostly vegetable oils, plant extracts, wetting agents/detergents, zinc metal strips,…etc.
More Definitions: Biopesticides are derived from natural sources as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. Bt containing products are the most common but the “plant incorporated protectants” that come from adding genetic material to plants also falls in this category. (*Canola oil is listed as a biopesticide but corn oil is listed as a minimum risk pesticide???)
Impetus for All the Changes The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) to protect people, especially children from over exposure to pesticides (from not just crop residues but all sources). EPA gives expedited registration to “reduced-risk “ pesticides. Old pesticides are being re-registered.
How Do Biorationals fit Into IPM? Cultural control Host-plant resistance Physical/Mechanical control Regulatory control Chemical control* Biological control*
Keeping up with changes* Crop Data Management Systems, Inc (despite the name they cover turf and ornamental products also) www.cdms.net Greenbook www.greenbook.net *Also have to make sure your state approves of the federal label use.
Types of Biorational Products Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) three main types Juvenile Hormones Precocenes Chitin Synthesis Inhibitors –Low toxicity for birds, mammals, reptiles but effects non-target arthropods and insects. –Only immature pests are killed, IGR can also effect arthropod eggs and embryogenesis.
Insects are killed when they grow to a next developmental stage Normal molt Unsuccessful molt after Dimilin application
Types of Biorational Products Mite Growth Regulators (MGR) types –Etoxazole - MGR - eggs and nymphs –Clofentezine - ovicide (safe for predatory mites) –Bifenazate – MGR (safe for predatory mites) –Pyridaben – MGR (toxic to predatory mites also) –Hexythiazox – ovicide/miticide (safe for predatory mites)
Types of Biorational Products: Botanicals and Florals Natural toxicants like nicotine –Alkaloids (some are toxic to all animals) Neem (azadirachtin less toxic but still useful in greenhouses, UV light breaks it down)
Types of Biorational Products Bacterial Fermentation Products ACh receptors - Spinosad (has certified organic formulations) GABA inhibitors - Avermectin
Types of Biorational Products Unique Modes of Action –Lipid Synthesis Inhibitor Spiromesifen – and spirodiclofen are very new products with an unusual mode of action from the “Tetronic acids” class of pesticides. They have activity against mites, scale crawlers and psyllid nymphs.
Types of Biorational Products: Microbials Bacteria (Bt varieties mostly) Fungi (Metarhizium anisopliae newest labels) Viruses Nematodes Genetically modified plants (Produce Bt toxins) –Low toxicity for non-target animals –Sensitive to environmental conditions, many have failed commercially
Types of Biorational Products: Neonicotinoids - related to nicotine and acts on the acetylcholine receptors –Imidacloprid most used worldwide –Clothinidin –Thiamethoxam –Acetamiprid –Dinotefuran * armored scales Safari®
Biorational Landscape Products Hand out UMASS product list
Cost Comparison Example Neighbor has large juniper (Juniperus spp.) trees, provide winter wind protection, almost always get drought stressed in summer but won’t be replaced. Spider mites (Platytetranychus libocedri) on juniper (aka cedar) attack almost every summer. Owner usually sprays with malathion, multiple times.
How does it fit into IPM? Cultural control Host-plant resistance Physical/Mechanical control Regulatory control Biological control Chemical control
Cost Comparison of Alternatives Bifenthrin (4 th Gen. pyrethroid labeled for mites) $69 per 16 fl. oz. - Internet price Jan06 12 ¢ per gallon of spray at medium rate Once every 7 days max. Bifenazate (mite growth regulator) $165 per 16 fl. oz. - Internet price Jan06 64.5 ¢ per gallon of spray at medium rate Once every 28 days
Treatment Cost Comparison of Alternatives Bifenthrin (synthetic pyrethroid) $69 per 16 fl. oz. (Once every 7 days max.) 48¢ Chemical cost at medium rate plus four application costs per month Bifenazate (mite growth regulator) $165 per 16 fl. oz. 65¢ Chemical cost at medium rate plus one application cost per month
Biorationals Place in IPM Don’t want to use the same mode of action pesticide every time you treat. Cultural changes, if possible, mite? eliminate the need for treatment For a while, there were few economical alternative to conventional insecticides
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