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The Benefits of Pesticide Use And why LBAM is spray-worthy. And why LBAM is spray-worthy.

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Presentation on theme: "The Benefits of Pesticide Use And why LBAM is spray-worthy. And why LBAM is spray-worthy."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Benefits of Pesticide Use And why LBAM is spray-worthy. And why LBAM is spray-worthy.

2 “A pesticide, according to both federal and state law, is defined as any substance or mixture of substances intended for preventing, destroying, repelling or mitigating any pest.” (CDFA)

3 Calculating the Net Benefits of Pesticides  On-Farm Cost-Benefit Analysis  Benefits: avoiding crop loss  Costs: purchase and application costs  Critique: this limited calculation misses the negative externalities to society and environment (Bowles and Webster 1995).  On-Farm Cost-Benefit Analysis  Benefits: avoiding crop loss  Costs: purchase and application costs  Critique: this limited calculation misses the negative externalities to society and environment (Bowles and Webster 1995).

4  Pest Control can have primary and secondary beneficial effects on society, environment, and economy (Cooper and Dobson 2007). –reduce damage to structures (e.g. termites) –increase growing seasons (e.g. reduce blight on off- season tomatoes) –reduce damage to structures (e.g. termites) –increase growing seasons (e.g. reduce blight on off- season tomatoes) –reduce disease vectors (e.g. mosquitoes with malaria) –reduce pressure to expand land use (e.g. high yields on less land) –reduce disease vectors (e.g. mosquitoes with malaria) –reduce pressure to expand land use (e.g. high yields on less land) BUT: There are positive externalities, too

5 Pesticides: Good for Some Things  And at least some of these can be attributed directly to pesticides (Edward-Jones 2008).  Pesticides better than other types of pest controls for: ease of use, speed of control, consistency of control, and risk reduction.  Can be used quickly over large area to control destructive and mobile pests (e.g. locusts; LBAM?); other methods likely too slow or circumscribed.  Can reduce labor, and release labor from the farm; other methods do not. (e.g. pesticides vs. hand- weeding).  And at least some of these can be attributed directly to pesticides (Edward-Jones 2008).  Pesticides better than other types of pest controls for: ease of use, speed of control, consistency of control, and risk reduction.  Can be used quickly over large area to control destructive and mobile pests (e.g. locusts; LBAM?); other methods likely too slow or circumscribed.  Can reduce labor, and release labor from the farm; other methods do not. (e.g. pesticides vs. hand- weeding).

6 USDA & CDFA: “LBAM Emergency!”  First mainland spotting in March ‘07 in Alameda County; then, in 11 more counties! Panic!  USDA and CDFA are “working aggressively to control and eradicate this pest before it has the chance to spread requiring greater resources to protect American agriculture and our urban and suburban landscape.” (my emphasis)  LBAM eats over “1,000 plant species, and more than 250 fruits and vegetables!” Panic!  First mainland spotting in March ‘07 in Alameda County; then, in 11 more counties! Panic!  USDA and CDFA are “working aggressively to control and eradicate this pest before it has the chance to spread requiring greater resources to protect American agriculture and our urban and suburban landscape.” (my emphasis)  LBAM eats over “1,000 plant species, and more than 250 fruits and vegetables!” Panic! – California Native Trees: California cypress, redwoods, oaks, etc., in landscaping, parks, and in nature. – Ag Crops: grapes, citrus, stone fruits, etc., key to CA economy, and produce for country. – California Native Trees: California cypress, redwoods, oaks, etc., in landscaping, parks, and in nature. – Ag Crops: grapes, citrus, stone fruits, etc., key to CA economy, and produce for country.

7 Potential Cost of LBAM  If it spreads to agricultural land:  $160-$640 million to $2.4 billion in crop, environmental damage, and control costs. (CDFA)  Loss of agricultural revenues due to domestic and international quarantines.  But: US sets the LBAM restriction standard; others follow. Could be changed if US redefines LBAM as a leafroller (Aquino et al. 2008).  If it spreads to agricultural land:  $160-$640 million to $2.4 billion in crop, environmental damage, and control costs. (CDFA)  Loss of agricultural revenues due to domestic and international quarantines.  But: US sets the LBAM restriction standard; others follow. Could be changed if US redefines LBAM as a leafroller (Aquino et al. 2008).

8 “Biological” Approach  Pheromones  Highly selective; negligible residues; reduces need for harsher pesticides. (Welter et al. 2005).  Spray vs. Twist Ties  Twist Ties useful in ag zones, but LBAM found in urban areas (spreading through nursery stock). (CDFA)  CDFA says:  This eradication campaign is the “most environmentally friendly yet” (Renner 2008).  Pheromones  Highly selective; negligible residues; reduces need for harsher pesticides. (Welter et al. 2005).  Spray vs. Twist Ties  Twist Ties useful in ag zones, but LBAM found in urban areas (spreading through nursery stock). (CDFA)  CDFA says:  This eradication campaign is the “most environmentally friendly yet” (Renner 2008).

9 Questions:  Are there environmentally friendly pesticides? (Some are organically certified…)  Removing one “bad” pesticide that is effective may mean an increase in the absolute amount of pesticide used, as farmers compensate by spraying more of less effective pesticides. How do we balance banning only the worst pesticides with the possible impacts on the full pesticide “ecology”?  Is it ever necessary to do aerial spraying of pesticides (pheromone or other) in residential areas? What about spraying for mosquitoes in areas with a high risk for malaria or other insect-borne diseases?  Are there environmentally friendly pesticides? (Some are organically certified…)  Removing one “bad” pesticide that is effective may mean an increase in the absolute amount of pesticide used, as farmers compensate by spraying more of less effective pesticides. How do we balance banning only the worst pesticides with the possible impacts on the full pesticide “ecology”?  Is it ever necessary to do aerial spraying of pesticides (pheromone or other) in residential areas? What about spraying for mosquitoes in areas with a high risk for malaria or other insect-borne diseases?

10 Sources:  Aquino, Teresa, Daniel Harder, Kenneth Kimes, and Jeff Rosendale “ Light Brown Apple Moth (LBAM): Implications for California Agriculture. ” ICA 1.1 (April 1).  Bowles, R.G., and J.P.G. Webster “ Some problems associated with the analysis of the costs and benefits of pesticides. ” Crop Protection 14.7:  Cooper, Jerry, and Hans Dobson “ The benefits of pesticides to mankind and the environment. ” Crop Protection 26:  Dasgupta, Susmita, Craig Meisner, and David Wheeler “ Is Environmentally Friendly Agriculture Less Profitable for Farmers? Evidence on Integrated Pest Management in Bangladesh. ” Review of Agricultural Economics 29.1:  Edwards-Jones, Gareth “ Do benefits accrue to ‘ pest control ’ or ‘ pesticides? ’ : A Comment on Cooper and Dobson. ” Crop Protection 27:  Renner, Rebecca “ Weapons of Moth Destruction. ” Environmental Science and Technology. (Jan 15): ( © American Chemical Society)  USDA:  Welter, Stephen C., Carolyn Pickel, Jocelyn Millar, Frances Cave, Robert A. Van Steenwyk, John Dunley “ Pheromone mating disruption offers selective management options for key pests. ” California Agriculture 59.1 (Jan.-Mar.):  Zilberman, David, Andrew Schmitz, Gary Casterline, Erik Lichtenberg, and Jerome B. Siebert "The Economics of Pesticide Use and Regulation." Science, New Series (Aug. 2):  Aquino, Teresa, Daniel Harder, Kenneth Kimes, and Jeff Rosendale “ Light Brown Apple Moth (LBAM): Implications for California Agriculture. ” ICA 1.1 (April 1).  Bowles, R.G., and J.P.G. Webster “ Some problems associated with the analysis of the costs and benefits of pesticides. ” Crop Protection 14.7:  Cooper, Jerry, and Hans Dobson “ The benefits of pesticides to mankind and the environment. ” Crop Protection 26:  Dasgupta, Susmita, Craig Meisner, and David Wheeler “ Is Environmentally Friendly Agriculture Less Profitable for Farmers? Evidence on Integrated Pest Management in Bangladesh. ” Review of Agricultural Economics 29.1:  Edwards-Jones, Gareth “ Do benefits accrue to ‘ pest control ’ or ‘ pesticides? ’ : A Comment on Cooper and Dobson. ” Crop Protection 27:  Renner, Rebecca “ Weapons of Moth Destruction. ” Environmental Science and Technology. (Jan 15): ( © American Chemical Society)  USDA:  Welter, Stephen C., Carolyn Pickel, Jocelyn Millar, Frances Cave, Robert A. Van Steenwyk, John Dunley “ Pheromone mating disruption offers selective management options for key pests. ” California Agriculture 59.1 (Jan.-Mar.):  Zilberman, David, Andrew Schmitz, Gary Casterline, Erik Lichtenberg, and Jerome B. Siebert "The Economics of Pesticide Use and Regulation." Science, New Series (Aug. 2):


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