Presentation on theme: "Pesticide Residue From the farm to the fork…. What are categorized as pesticides? “The term pesticide includes many kinds of ingredients used in products,"— Presentation transcript:
What are categorized as pesticides? “The term pesticide includes many kinds of ingredients used in products, such as insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, insect repellants, weed killers, antimicrobials, and swimming pool chemicals, which are designed to prevent, destroy, repel, or reduce pests of any sort.” “The term pesticide includes many kinds of ingredients used in products, such as insecticides, fungicides, rodenticides, insect repellants, weed killers, antimicrobials, and swimming pool chemicals, which are designed to prevent, destroy, repel, or reduce pests of any sort.” Basically, pesticides are substances intended to be used for destroying, preventing, mitigating or repelling any pest. Basically, pesticides are substances intended to be used for destroying, preventing, mitigating or repelling any pest.
What are the common groups of pests? INSECTSWEEDSBACTERIAVIRUSESFUNGIRODENTSPRIONS
Who Monitors Pesticides? Environmental Protection Agency Food and Drug Administration U.S. Department of Agriculture
The USDA The USDA is responsible for evaluating and establishing the regulations pertaining to the pesticides though analytical studies. The USDA is responsible for evaluating and establishing the regulations pertaining to the pesticides though analytical studies.
The FDA The FDA is responsible for establishing the laws pertaining to crops and agriculture processes. The FDA is responsible for establishing the laws pertaining to crops and agriculture processes.
The EPA EPA is responsible for regulating the pesticides that are used by growers to protect crops and for setting tollerences called maximum residue limits (MRLs) on the amount of pesticides that may remain in or on foods marketed in America.
The EPA Before a pesticide may be marketed and used in the United States, EPA evaluates the proposed pesticide thoroughly to ensure that it will not harm human health or the environment. Pesticides that pass this evaluation are granted a license or "registration" that permits their sale and use according to requirements set by EPA to protect human health and the environment.
The EPA The Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances Residue chemistry data are designed to provide the information necessary to determine the site, nature, and magnitude of residues in or on food or feed. This information includes plant metabolism data, residue data, analytical methodology, and, when indicated, animal metabolism data and animal feeding studies to determine the carry over of residues into meat, milk, poultry, and eggs.
Types of Studies Required Product Performance Data from Studies that Determine Hazard to Humans and Domestic Animals Data from Studies that Determine Hazard to Nontarget Organisms Post-Application Exposure Studies Applicator/User Exposure Studies Pesticide Spray Drift Evaluation Environmental Fate Residue Chemistry
EPA uses residue chemistry data to estimate the exposure of the general population to pesticide residues in food and for setting and enforcing tolerances for pesticide residues in food or feed. The Agency can estimate the amount and nature of residues likely to be present in food or animal feed because of a proposed pesticide usage by evaluating information on: the chemical identity and composition of the pesticide product; the chemical identity and composition of the pesticide product; the amounts, frequency, and time of pesticide application; and the amounts, frequency, and time of pesticide application; and test results on the amount of residues remaining on or in the treated food or feed test results on the amount of residues remaining on or in the treated food or feed
Approach to Microbial Pest Control Agents The efficacy of the agent often depends upon its ability to replicate in the target pest, which is not likely to remain on the crop after harvest. The living form of the agent in most instances will usually not replicate in the absence of the specific target pest. Environmental conditions such as sunlight, rainfall, winds, humidity, and temperature often greatly reduce the viability of the agent; therefore, the residues of living organisms are apt to be small or relatively insignificant shortly after application. Data supporting currently registered MPCAs indicate that they would not likely pose a hazard to humans or other mammals.
Continued… In many instances where and when a microorganism is used as an MPCA, the microorganism is already normally present in the environment and has demonstrated no adverse effects. Residues of microorganisms used as MPCAs that are capable of replication on food or feed--a very remote possibility--may be rendered nonviable or be removed by the usual processing of such foods and feeds (i.e., washing, drying, heat sterilization, and additions of sugar, salt, and other preservatives).
Biochemical Pesticide Test Guidelines http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticide s/regtools/guidelines/biochem_gdlns.htm http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/biopesticide s/regtools/guidelines/biochem_gdlns.htm
The Law Most of the legislation the EPA uses are mandated in US Code Title 21.9.IV.§346 “Any poisonous or deleterious substance added to any food, except where such substance is required in the production thereof or cannot be avoided by good manufacturing practice shall be deemed to be unsafe for purposes of the application…the Secretary shall promulgate regulations limiting the quantity therein or thereon to such extent as he finds necessary for the protection of public health, and any quantity exceeding the limits so fixed shall also be deemed to be unsafe…In determining the quantity of such added substance to be tolerated in or on different articles of food the Secretary shall take into account the extent to which the use of such substance is required or cannot be avoided in the production.”
The testing is typically done by third parties. A prominent example is the Eclipse Scientific Group. “Modern agriculture has evolved to the extent that consumers now expect to be able to buy a plentiful supply of food, at a reasonable price, throughout the year. Farmers and growers often use pesticides to help them achieve this goal.” “Modern agriculture has evolved to the extent that consumers now expect to be able to buy a plentiful supply of food, at a reasonable price, throughout the year. Farmers and growers often use pesticides to help them achieve this goal.”
Aren’t pesticides poisons? As poisons, pesticides are inherently dangerous. However, farmers manage and reduce the risk by both using low levels and applying some time before the crop is harvested so that the pesticide degrades into harmless compounds or is washed off by the rain or other means. Thus they can be targeted and used at application levels that kill insects rather than harm humans who subsequently use the products.
What about the pesticides that have long term residual effects? ChlordeconeLindaneDDTOrganophosphates
Chlordecone AKA Kepone Chlordecone: Leads to abnormal sperm and affects their ability to move. Its use was banned in 1975 for use in America. (The Dead Kennedys recorded a song named Kepone Factory in 1978).
Lindane Lindane: Linked to breast and other cancers, and fertility problems. In 2006, the EPA called for the cancellation for agricultural uses. It is still used in pharmaceuticals to treat scabies.
DDT DDT: Linked to cancer and male infertility after it was shown to block the action of male hormones. It was originally synthesized in 1874 and in 1948 Paul Hermann Müller was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison. It has been banned in the US since 1972 but is still commonly used in developing nations to combat malaria, typhus, and other insect-borne diseases among both military and civilian populations after being suggested by the WHO in 2006.
Organophosphates Organophosphates: Those used in sheep dip have been linked to excessive tiredness, headaches, limb pains, disturbed sleep, poor concentration, mood changes, and suicidal thoughts. Like DDT, these were banned in the US in the 1970’s.
Pesticides save farmers money by preventing crop losses to insects and other pests; in the US, farmers get an estimated four-fold return on money they spend on pesticides.
Pesticides help farmers increase crop productivity and quality and are therefore an indispensable tool for the sustainable production of high quality food and fibres. Pesticide use enables farmers to grow more per unit area, with less tillage, reducing pressures on forests and other uncultivated land, conserving natural resources and reducing soil erosion. Pesticides help ensure that consumers have access to affordable food that is safer and more nutritious. Pesticides have removed the hardship of hand weeding, and given farmer families across the world the choice to pursue education and opportunities away from farming, so improving quality of life and living standards. Pesticides help safeguard public health by controlling or eliminating pests that cause disease and property damage. http://www.croplife.org/
According to the NIH MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, roughly 7 million people die of food poisoning each year, with about 10 times as many suffering from a non-fatal version.
Should we go back to using original farming methods? Sumerian began using sulfur as a pesticide over 4,500 years ago. By the 15th century, toxic chemicals such as arsenic, mercury and lead were being applied to crops to kill pests.
Organic Farming Organic farms use pesticides. Organic farmers still use naturally derived pesticides.
Similar Regulatory Agencies Pesticide Residues Committee (PRC) regulates pesticides in England. http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/prc_home.asp http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/prc_home.asp
More Information Information on EPA's pesticide regulatory program and a variety of pesticide-related publications call (703)-305-5017.