Some pesticides & toxic chemicals are known to go through the soil to drinking water wells (EPA) 2,4-D 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzoapyrene Carbofuran Chlordane Dalapon Di 2-ethylhexyl adipate Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate2,4-D 2,4,5-TP (Silvex) Acrylamide Alachlor Atrazine Benzoapyrene Carbofuran Chlordane Dalapon Di 2-ethylhexyl adipate Di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate Dibromochloropropane Dinoseb Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) Diquat EndothallDibromochloropropane Dinoseb Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) Diquat Endothall Endrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxideEndrin Epichlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Glyphosate Heptachlor Heptachlor epoxide Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Lindane Methoxychlor Oxamyl [Vydate] PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Toxaphene Hexachlorobenzene Hexachlorocyclopentadiene Lindane Methoxychlor Oxamyl [Vydate] PCBs [Polychlorinated biphenyls] Pentachlorophenol Picloram Simazine Toxaphene
Ground and surface water contamination In the USA, 10% of community wells and 4% of rural domestic wells have detectable levels of at least one of the 127 pesticides tested in a national survey (EPA 1990)
AgVANTAGE-requested pesticides that may enter drinking water wells Fungicides Kresoxim-methyl (Stroby) Metalaxyl (Ridomil) Triadimefon (Bayleton) Herbicides Glyphosate (Kline, Roundup, Uragan) Prometryn (Gezagard) Metribuzin (Senkor) Insecticides Diazinon (Basudin) Dimethoate (Bi-58) Imidacloprid (Konfidor, Prestige) Nematicide Dazomet (Basaid)
To avoid bee kills Try to select a pesticide & dosage that will kill the pest & not kill bees If this is NOT possible: 1.Use the pesticide in the formulation least harmful to bees 2.Apply the pesticide early morning or early evening when bees are not visiting the crop 3.Warn local beekeepers before applying the pesticide 4.Move bee colonies away from sites where toxic pesticides are used
Any susceptible honey bee hives in Georgia? Bee hives along road
Other environmental issues with pesticide use Pesticides kill beneficial insects (those that eat crop pests) Some pests become resistant to pesticides, requiring the use of much more pesticide to kill them, or change to another pesticide Pesticides can poison cows, sheep, pigs Toxicity to other plants & crops
ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC COSTS OF PESTICIDE USE IN THE USA Impact Costs Millions of US Dollars/year __________________________________________________________ Public health impacts 1,140 Domestic animals deaths and contaminations 30 Loss of natural enemies that eat pests 520 Cost of pesticide resistance 1,500 Honeybee and pollination losses 334 Crop losses 1,391 Fishery losses 100 Bird losses 2,160 Groundwater contamination 2,000 Government regulations to prevent damage 470 TOTAL 9,645 Source: Pimentel
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