Hawaiian Populations “Pelagic” – offshore “Insular” – island-associated estimated at only 123 animals effective population size only is 46 Insular population declined from 1989 to 2010 from 3 rd common species in Hawaii to 9 th common species in Hawaii Aerial survey data from Dr. Joe Mobley, UH
Movements and Habitat Use Baird et al. 2010. Movements and habitat use of satellite-tagged false killer whales around the main Hawaiian Islands. Endangered Species Research 10: 107-121. Applied satellite tags to 3 groups of insular and one group (1 ind.) of pelagic Pseudoorca; Groups from insular population regularly moved between leeward and windward side of the islands; Some individuals moved extensively and rapidly among islands; Others remained associated with the island of Hawaii for longer periods; Individuals within groups associated and dissassociated over periods of days sometimes moving >100km apart; The pelagic individual came within 62km of land (inshore of the longline fishery exclusion boundary); Insular groups stayed <100km from shore. Distance from shore cannot be used as a strict boundary between populations Individuals from insular population may overlap with longline fisheries
Threats Hunted in West Indies and Indonesia Some killed every year in Japan – THE COVE – Iki Island 900 killed between 1965-1990 Long-line fisheries in Hawaii Persistent organic pollutants (e.g. PCBs, PBDEs) Reduction in prey size Deliberate shooting
Hawaii-based long-line fishery id the only fishery with an observer program 20% coverge in the deep-set tuna fishery False killer whale bycatch exceeded “sustainable levels” since at least 1999 Jan 2010- NMFS formed a Take Reduction Team Draft of Take Reduction Plan Mandatory Circle Hooks Weak Hooks Year-round closure of area around main Hawaiian Islands Measures Being Considered In Hawaii
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