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WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The WHO « Housing and Health policy » Xavier Bonnefoy / Matthias Braubach WHO-European Centre for Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The WHO « Housing and Health policy » Xavier Bonnefoy / Matthias Braubach WHO-European Centre for Environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The WHO « Housing and Health policy » Xavier Bonnefoy / Matthias Braubach WHO-European Centre for Environment and Health, Bonn Office

2 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Structure Housing and health – the challenging trends The WHO approach to housing and health Priority work areas WHO activities on housing and health

3 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The emerging problems (1) L ife expectancy has risen from 50 years to 80 in less than a century, while the exchange rate of the housing stock is at ca. 1% per year

4 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Housing stock for Germany, 2050 Already existing in 2005 Still to be built

5 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The emerging problems (2) The number of people with physical limitations living in their own dwelling increases every year

6 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Accessible housing Strongly limited – 4% Partially limited – 9% Not limited – 87% European Disability Forum 2002: % of population being limited in their daily activities due to handicaps (based on Eurostat)...and for the popula- tion above 65 years: “A specific comment is to be made in the case of housing. Our research highlights the high level of inaccessibility of housing for many disabled people, which is close to 66%. The lack of accessibility is not only due to architectonical barriers; financial barriers in housing are quite important, in particular because of the extra costs of adapting inaccessible dwellings.” Data provided by: European Disability Forum / Eurostat

7 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The emerging problems (3) The world is facing a new energy crisis, and Europe is not well- prepared for supporting the most underprivileged (private households account for ca. 50% of energy consumption)

8 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Excess winter deaths UK Mortality (all causes) in relation to the lowest point in summer => BLUE LINE: for coldest dwellings => RED LINE: for hottest dwellings Data provided by: Dr Wilkinson et al. (2001)

9 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Source: National data except England; for England: ‘Cold comfort:The social and environ- mental determinants of excess winter deaths in England’, 1986-1996 by Paul Wilkinson et al. Excess winter deaths Data provided and computed by: WHO ECEH Bonn Office

10 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The emerging problems (4) In Europe, relevant regulations for construction work, maintenance of the housing stock, and rehabilitation programs are mostly out of influence of ministries of health

11 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Legal responsibility Ministry of Health Ministry of Social Affairs Ministry of Environment Ministry of Consumer Protection Ministry of Housing / Construction Building guidelines Housing conditions Health effects Impact assessments Law enforcement

12 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The emerging problems (5) Poverty and inequalities are increasingly affecting the housing market – social segregation is rising while the public and social housing stock is reduced or privatized

13 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Poverty and housing (data for 2000) Source: Eurostat

14 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The emerging problems (6) Home safety issues are an underestimated section of unintentional injuries and are mostly relevant for vulnerable groups such as children and elderly

15 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Unintentional injuries by causes (*) among which 300 road accidents Data provided by: Min. of Health France / UK Slide prepared by: Prof Ormandy / WHO EU-15 (2004): 130.000 fatalities (54% home and leisure) Killer No. 1 for age group 1-45 years More than 10% of all health care costs

16 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Unintentional Injuries (EU-15*) 130.000 fatalities (54% home & leisure) 390.000 disabled (68% home & leisure) 5.000.000 hospitalised (66% home & leisure) 39.000.000 injured (67% home & leisure) Killer No. 1 in age group 1-45 years More then 10% of all health costs Data provided by: DG SANCO (2004) Slide prepared by: Dr Bauer, Austria

17 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The emerging problems (7) Urban patterns and residential environments are often car- dependent and provide little opportunities for children to play or for outdoor physical exercise

18 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Obesity and housing environments Obesity is a normal response to an abnormal environment Data / Pictures provided by: Prof Moreno / CDC, USA / WHO ECEH Bonn

19 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health LARES: Overweight/obese and levels of greenery – odds ratios * adjusted for sex, age and SES Data provided by: Dr Ellaway

20 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health A new approach to housing and health Housing and health... is more than „sanitation, crowding and indoor air quality“ needs a much wider definition is not only a responsibility of the health or housing ministry must integrate societal changes

21 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health …I urge individuals, businesses, and local and national governments to take up the urban environmental challenge…let us create « green cities » where people can raise their children and pursue their dreams in a well planned, clean and healthy environment. Kofi Annan, 05 June 2005

22 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The WHO approach (1) Housing is...

23 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The WHO approach (2) Sectoral and focused studies are needed, but often not sufficient: Potential associations may be overlooked The relative importance of selected housing factors - among other factors - is not clear The effect of multiple exposure (cocktail effect) cannot be identified The interaction between dwelling and resident is often underestimated Social and mental factors / outcomes often neglected

24 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The WHO approach (3) Effective work on housing and health needs to consider: The realistic experience of housing The relevance of a holistic approach bringing together all housing areas and domains Work on cross-cutting issues dealing with more than one aspect is to be prioritised Hard data and soft data is both needed to reflect the impact of housing on health

25 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Priority work areas Working areas touching or merging a variety of housing aspects (technical, economic, archi- tectural, material, user-related...) are e.g.: Noise exposure / home as place to sleep Energy efficiency / thermal comfort Indoor air quality, tightness, air exchange Architecture and design in relation to home safety and accessibility Residential environment and leisure / transport options Etc.

26 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Some priority work areas for CEE Maintenance of the housing stock Access to (social) housing Energy efficiency measures of the housing stock (considering air quality issues) Residential environment / social stability Safety of housing to avoid home accidents

27 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The political response of WHO Budapest ministerial declaration (Art. 14c) -We call for initiatives and programmes aimed at providing national and local authorities all over the region with guidance for integrating health and environment concerns into housing policies. Children Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe Priority 1: access to adequate sanitation Priority 2: promoting safe, secure and supportive human settlements to avoid accidents / injuries Priority 3:ensure an environment with clean air Vilnius housing and health symposium – final declaration -We affirm that a decent home for all citizens is to be a priority target for all national and local governments

28 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health The technical response of WHO -WHO Large Analysis and Review of European housing and health Status (LARES survey) -Housing and Health indicator set for the European Environmental Health Information System -Urban pests and health -Legal framework of housing and health -Child accident prevention -Night noise guidelines -Housing and Health Action Plan (Portugal) -Environmental Burden of Disease for housing -Longitudinal study on housing interventions -Information brochures on housing-related topics

29 WHO European Centre for Environment and Health Thank you! Further information at www.euro.who.int/housing


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