1By : Versha Thakur Shravani Aishwarya The Design, Implementation & Evaluation of Cells : A Virtual Smartphone ArchitectureBy :Versha ThakurShravani Aishwarya
2Introduction Smartphones- most necessary tools to carry nowadays. Cells are used to enable virtual smartphone features.Features like 3D graphics, power management, caller ID support etc.Malicious software's can easily access data.Solution – Virtual Machine (VM) MechanismCells uses OS virtualization (run multiple VP’s on a single instance)Tested on Google Nexus 1 and Nexus S phones.
3Requirements Sensitive information must never be leaked. Support exclusive & shared access across VPs.Sensitive information must never be leaked.Prevent malicious applications.
4USAGE MODEL Cells runs on multiple VPs on a single hardware phone. VP runs a standard Android environment.Different level of access & permissions based on the function to be performed.Switching of VPs depend on the level of access given.VPs configured on a PC & downloaded to a phone via USB.
6Device namespaces Introduces New kernel- level mechanisms Kernel –Level Device VirtualizationIntroduces user- level device namespace proxy mechanism.Starting new VP, cell mounts the VP file system.User- Level Device VirtualizationCells enable Linux Kernel Samepage Merging (KSM) for short time.Uses Android low memory killer – to increase total no. of VPs.Scalability Techniques
7GRAPHICS Framebuffer GPU Power Management Leverages Kernel-level device namespaceDriver (mux_fb)Multiplexes access to a single physical device.GPUReplace Poor quality graphicsScenes in a video game, custom animations.Power ManagementBackground VPs should not be able to put the device into a low power mode.Should not prevent the foreground VP from putting the device into a low power mode.
11REPEATABILITYResources are not expensive or difficult to perform researchRequires a group of people with knowledge of many different topics.REPEATABLE, if proper knowledge in all fields of software & hardware.
12EXTENDABILITY Android latest version (4.3) supports the user profiles. Done in 2012.Android latest version (4.3) supports the user profiles.Samsung released few devices – one click switch between Android & Windows.Samsung is running two completely different OS on one device.So research is already extended.
13CRITICISMMissing concepts such as Hardware virtualizations.Latest cell phones are providing various multi-tasking features.Only performed to run same OS on different VP’s.If two different OS’s is implemented – increase the acceptance of the product.Research on only one phone model Google Nexus.
14CONCLUSIONDriven by virtualization mechanisms, device namespaces.Virtualized critical hardware devices such as framebuffer and GPU.Android’s complicated power management framework- no extra power consumption.Cells provides each VP with complete use of standard cellular phone network by using VoIP cloud service.Implemented on Google Nexus 1 and Nexus S.