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Immune System & Oncology Nursing Care PN 143 Rebecca Maier, BSN.

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Presentation on theme: "Immune System & Oncology Nursing Care PN 143 Rebecca Maier, BSN."— Presentation transcript:

1 Immune System & Oncology Nursing Care PN 143 Rebecca Maier, BSN

2 Key Terms The list is in your handouts. You Need To Know:  definitions,  Spelling and pronunciation,  how does it apply/work,  significance to a patient,  nursing considerations/actions

3 Introduction  “The human body exists in an environment of antagonistic forces that are constantly attacking and threatening its integrity.”  “In response to these onslaughts, the body exhibits a wide array of adaptations to protect against external and internal harmful agents.” P. 753 Adult Health Nursing

4 Nature of Immunity We have things inside our bodies that protect us from being sick. These things are found in our Immune system

5 Nature of Immunity  Functions of the immune system 1. Protect the body’s internal environment against invading organisms 2. Maintain homeostasis by removing damaged cells from the circulation 3. Serve as a surveillance network for recognizing and guarding against the development and growth of abnormal cells

6 Immunology The study of the immune system  Immunocompetence The immune system responds appropriately to a foreign stimulus  Immunity The quality of being insusceptible to or unaffected by a particular disease or condition

7 B-Cells make immunoglobulins (im-mu-no-glob-u-lins), also called antibodies (an-ti-bod-ies) or Igs.


9 T-cell

10 There are 3 kinds of T-cells- Killer T-cells, Helper T-cells and Regulatory T-cells

11 Phagocyte (Phag-o-cyte)

12 Complement System  The complement system can destroy the cell membrane of many bacterial species, and this action attracts phagocytes to the area

13 The Immune system I tell the B-cells when to stop! 3 kinds of T-cells, I kill germs! I tell the Killer T-cells to attack germs! I tell the B-cells when to make antibodies. I make the cells go into action!

14 Nature of Immunity  Inappropriate responses: If the immune response is too weak or too vigorous, homeostasis is disrupted, causing a malfunction of the system or : immunoincompetence  This can cause a number of diseases to manifest: Pemphigus vulgaris: Torso

15 Nature of Immunity 1. Hyperactive response against environmental antigens (allergy) 2. Inability to protect the body, as in immunodeficiency disorders (AIDS) 3. Failure to recognize the body as self, as in autoimmune disorders (systemic lupus erythematosus) 4. Attacks on beneficial foreign tissue (organ transplant rejection or transfusion reaction)

16 Nature of Immunity  Innate (natural) immunity First line of defense Provides physical and chemical barriers to invading pathogens and protects against the external environment

17 Nature of Immunity Provides non-specific immunity

18 Innate Immunity  Figure 15-1

19 Nature of Immunity  Adaptive (acquired) immunity Second line of defense Composed of thymus, spleen, bone marrow, blood, and lymph (p. 755 AHN)

20 Nature of Immunity  Adaptive (acquired) Immunity Produces antibodies in the cells after an infection or vaccination Received passively from mother’s antibodies, animal serum or from production of antibodies in response to disease

21 Organization of the immune system. (From Grimes, D. [1991]. Infectious diseases. St. Louis: Mosby.)

22 Cells of the Immune System  Leukocytes (WBCs) are vital components of the immune system  Formed mostly in the bone marrow and partly in lymph tissue; fights infectious organisms  There are 6 types of WBCs normally found in the blood

23 6 Types of WBC 1. Neutrophils – ingest bacteria 2. Eosinophils – allergic reactions, parasitic invasions 3. Basophils – secrete histamine 4. Monocytes – may turn into macrophages 5. Lymphocytes – B cells & T cells 6. Plasma cells

24 Origin and processing of B and T cells.

25 B Cells  aka B Lymphocytes  Responsible for humoral immunity (immunity dominated by antibodies)  Stimulate plasma cells to secrete antibodies in response to antigens  Produce memory cells

26 T cells  aka T lymphocytes  Responsible for cellular immunity  T-suppressor and T-helper cells are important in understanding HIV  HIV is a progressive depletion of the CD4 T-helper cells

27 Nature of Immunity  Macrophages (phagocytes ) Engulf and destroy microorganisms that pass the skin and mucous membrane Carry antigen to the lymphocytes  Lymphokine One of the chemical factors produced and released by T cells that attracts macrophages to the site of infection or inflammation  Antigen A substance recognized by the body as foreign that can trigger an immune response



30 Immune Response  Humoral response B cells: produce antibodies in response to antigen challenge An immediate response Provides protection against acute, rapidly developing bacterial and viral infection

31 Immune Response ource/ une-cells-in-action/

32 Immune Response  Cellular response T cells: release lymphokine that attracts macrophages to site of infection A delayed response; delayed hypersensitivity reaction Active against slowly developing infections Also involved in autoimmune response, some allergic reactions and rejection of foreign cells

33 Nature of Immunity  Humoral immunity Responds to antigens such as bacteria and foreign tissue Result of the development and continuing presence of circulating antibodies in the plasma

34 Nature of Immunity

35 Humoral Immunity

36 Nature of Immunity


38  4 R’s Recognize: self from non-self Respond: to non-self invaders Remember: the invader Regulate: its action

39 Factors Influencing Immunity  Age  Sex  Nutritional status  Stress  Treatment modalities

40 Genetic Control of Immunity  There is a genetic link to both well- developed immune systems and poorly developed or compromised immune systems

41 Effects of Normal Aging on the Immune System

42 Immune Response

43  Immunization A controlled exposure to a disease-producing pathogen which triggers antibody production and prevents disease Provides protection for months to years

44 Immune Response



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