5 B. Lymphatic Organsi. Contain a large number of lymphocytes (white blood cells)ii. Red Bone Marrow, Thymus Gland, Lymph Nodes, Spleen, Tonsils
6 II. DefensesA. Nonspecific - barriers to entry (skin), inflammatory response, phagocytes, natural killer cellsSkin: low pH, normal flora (bacteria)Inflammation: increase heat, swelling, macrophages eat antigenAntigen: bad guy or foreign substance
7 DefensesB. Specific - require B Lymphocytes and T lymphocytes (B cells and T cells)Antibodies: protein produced by body that recognize specific antigens (mark the antigen to slow it down and so macrophage find it to eat it)
8 Defenses 1. Types of white blood cells B Lymphocytes: humoral response (in the fluid)- produce antibodies and memory cells in fluidT Lymphocytes: cell-mediated response- produce killer T cells that kill infected body cellsHelper T Cells - activate Killer T cells and B cellsActivate the whole process: this is what HIV destroys
10 2. Humoral vs cell-mediated B Lymphocytes, vs T LymphocytesFluid (blood, lymph in infected cells
11 3. Innate vs adaptive (acquired) General, immediate, vs specific, lag time,no memory memoryPhagocytes B & T cellsCytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins that are important in cell signaling. They are released by cells and affect the behavior of other cells, and sometimes the releasing cell itself.
12 3. Active vs passive immunity Built up in body vs borrowed/ sharedLong term short term
13 C. Other Cell RolesMacrophages - consume pathogens, (also called phagocytes)Neutrophil - suicide bomber cells that destroy cells infected by a virusB Cells - mature into plasma cells when stimulatedPlasma Cells – produce antibodies specific to an invaderCytotoxic (Killer) T Cells - bump into infected cells, poke holes in them and destroy themHelper T Cells - activate Killer T cells and B cells
14 Another LookAnimation of the process from McGraw Hill
16 How Do Vaccines Work?Vaccines contained a killed or weakened part of a virus (or other pathogen) to stimulate your immune system to react to the antigen. Once you have antibodies for that microbe, the real one will not make you sick.Why do some people not want to vaccinate their children?Why do some people choose not to get the flu vaccine?
17 Why you shouldn’t trust drugs that say they boost your immune system.
18 Lupus, multiple sclerosis, allergies, arthritis psoriasis, Some people already have boosted immune systems….. they suffer from AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS: abnormally low activity or over activity of the immune systemLupus, multiple sclerosis,allergies, arthritis psoriasis,onset of diabetesLupus is a widespread and chronic autoimmune disease that, for unknown reasons, causes the immune system to attack the body’s own tissues and organs, including joints, kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, blood, and skin. - See more at:
19 Autoimmune disorders are often treated with steroids, which suppress the immune system.