Presentation on theme: "SELF-TEST Why do people commit crime? Brainstorm reasons for criminal behavior based on these three catagories: Social Social Economic Economic Biological."— Presentation transcript:
SELF-TEST Why do people commit crime? Brainstorm reasons for criminal behavior based on these three catagories: Social Social Economic Economic Biological Biological
Nature vs. Nurture debate Well you look like a duck, quack like a duck but….Who brought you up?
What do people become criminals? NATURE vs. NURTURE NATURE: Criminals are born, not made Biological Theories – Genetic or Physiological make-up leads to criminal behavior. Biological Theories – Genetic or Physiological make-up leads to criminal behavior. Personality Theories – certain types inclined to crime Personality Theories – certain types inclined to crime NURTURE: Social Learning – learned criminal ways: Cultural Transmission Theory
NATURE THEORIES About what makes someone a Criminal
Old School nature theories about criminals: Cesare Lombroso (1876) criminals are a separate species. Theory: shape of the head and face determined the "born criminal".
CRIMINAL HEADS ACCORDING TO LOMBROSO
CRIMINAL BODY TYPE???
ACTUAL CRIMINALS SMALLISH HEADS?
Another Old School NATURE Theory: William Sheldon Body types determined criminality. 1. Endomorphic (fat ) sociable and relaxed. 2. Ectomorphic (thin) are introverted and restrained. LEAST LIKELY TO BE CRIMINALS 3. Mesomorphic = CRIMINAL (muscular and aggressive). IDENTIFY SOME FLAWS IN THIS THEORY?
Neurophysiological causes PET (brain) scans done on impulsive killers showed: Damage in the pre-frontal cortex, which controls impulsive behavior. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TtOQnM3LQkEhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TtOQnM3LQkE Charles Whitman sniper http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TtOQnM3LQkE NATURE: MODERN THEORIES
Neurochemical The brain’s chemistry can be influenced by diet, food additives, or pollution. The brain’s chemistry can be influenced by diet, food additives, or pollution. The TWINKIE DEFENSE: A psychiatrist claimed that a poor diet could intensify mood swings as part of “diminished mental capacity”.
Neurochemical STEROIDS? Can the abuse of steroids, which increase testosterone levels, can cause people to become extremely violent? ("roid rage"). NO direct link between steroids and violence has not been made. http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=hN7rf4Mm1QA http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=hN7rf4Mm1QA
Twin studies: Genetic influence on crime IDENTICAL TWINS (same genes and gender) that have been separated at birth and brought up separately have been studied The degree of similarity between two twins is known as the concordance rate. This rate was compared with FRATERNAL twins who are brought up separately Concordance rate for IDENTICAL twins: 55% FRATERNAL twins: 17%
Psychopaths and Sociopaths SIMILARITIES: Both are dangerous, impulsive, and criminally minded Both have definable mental disorders PRIMARY DIFFERENCE: Generally Speaking PSYCHOPATHS ARE BORN (NATURE) SOCIOPATHS ARE MADE (NURTURE)
Sociopaths (NURTURE): Are capable of EMPATHY and can form meaningful personal relationships Are capable of EMPATHY and can form meaningful personal relationships Common sociological factors such as Common sociological factors such as Abused as children,Abused as children, running with the wrong crowd,running with the wrong crowd, PovertyPoverty Parents are criminals / neglectfulParents are criminals / neglectful Personal Characteristics: Easy to spot: socially inadequate, agitated, don’t fit in, spontaneous ill-thought-out crimes Easy to spot: socially inadequate, agitated, don’t fit in, spontaneous ill-thought-out crimes
Psychopaths (NATURE) Psychopaths show some of these characteristics: More organized in crimesMore organized in crimes Less easily recognized – appear “normal”Less easily recognized – appear “normal” Cunning / ability to deceive / manipulativeCunning / ability to deceive / manipulative Superficially charmingSuperficially charming Lack of EMPATHYLack of EMPATHY Lack of REMORSE / SHAMELack of REMORSE / SHAME Takes pleasure in the suffering of others (including family)Takes pleasure in the suffering of others (including family) Flat affect (do not display emotion / fake emotion)Flat affect (do not display emotion / fake emotion) Extreme NarcissismExtreme Narcissism
Mental Disorders related to Psychopathy (and to a lesser degree SOCIOPATHS) 1. CONDUCT DISORDER (diagnosed before age 15) Criteria: lack of adherence to social norms (bullies, threatens, fights). lack of adherence to social norms (bullies, threatens, fights). Physically cruel to others Physically cruel to others Animal Cruelty Animal Cruelty Has forced someone into sexual activity Has forced someone into sexual activity Setting fires to cause harm and damage Setting fires to cause harm and damage Lies, cheats, steals Lies, cheats, steals
2. ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER Diagnosed over age18; frequent diagnosis of serial killers, rapists, thrill killers CRITERIA : Violates norms (repeatedly arrested) Lies, deceives for profit or pleasure Impulsivity Irritability and aggressiveness Reckless disregard for safety of self or others Irresponsibility (work, repayment of debts) lack of remorse, indifferent to the suffering of others
Self-Test What is the difference between a psychopath and a sociopath? What diagnosis must have been made to be labeled Antisocial Personality Disorder? What is the difference between a ORGANIZED and DISORGANIZED serial killer?
Serial Killers Murder three or more victims, but each is killed on separate occasions usually select their victims usually select their victims cooling off periods between murders cooling off periods between murders plan their crimes carefully plan their crimes carefully
Serial Killers Most serial killers will fall into a pattern: modus operandi (method), location, victim type, motive, etc. The patterns of activities often allow police to apprehend the killer. Serial killers are often described as ‘normal’, ‘very chatty’ and ‘a good neighbor’.
Serial Killers Typical serial Killers are: Predominantly male White Within their twenties or thirties Middle class Kill within their ethnic group
Types of serial killers (patterns) Organized Characteristics: Socially competent (may lead a “normal” life) Socially competent (may lead a “normal” life) Intelligent Intelligent Planner Planner Generally targets strangers Generally targets strangers Uses restraints Uses restraints Has sex with their victims Has sex with their victims Follows their crimes in the media Follows their crimes in the media Returns to scene Returns to scene Very difficult to catch
Types of serial killers (patterns) Disorganized Characteristics: Socially immature Socially immature May know victims May know victims Kills spontaneously Kills spontaneously Often sexually inhibited Often sexually inhibited Harsh childhood discipline. Harsh childhood discipline. Lives alone Lives alone Sloppy crime scene / evidence present Sloppy crime scene / evidence present Shows little interest in the media Shows little interest in the media Easier to catch than the organized killer
Women who commit Crime Men commit about 80% of all Crime / 93% of all murders Men commit about 80% of all Crime / 93% of all murders Why do women commit so few murders? Why do women commit so few murders? Theory: Women’s orbital frontal region of the brain larger in women = more ability to control aggression. Theory: Women’s orbital frontal region of the brain larger in women = more ability to control aggression.
Women serial killers: RARE Psychopathy: “Anti-Social Personality Disorder” RARE IN WOMEN 1. “Angel of Mercy / Death” Nurses or health care workers who kill their patients 2. Mothers: Münchausen syndrome by proxy Deliberately cause injury or illness to another person (most often his or her child / 90% WOMEN), to gain attention or some other benefit. 3. BLACK WIDOWS: Husband murders; favorite method: Poisoning
Freud: Criminals are like Children Children should progress from: Children should progress from: 1. Pleasure principle (id = need instant gratification) 2. Reality principle (where the ego / self control is dominant).. Freud: stable home environment necessary to make the transition. Research has supported the fact that most criminals come from unstable homes. Research has supported the fact that most criminals come from unstable homes.
Child abuse and Crime Abused or neglected children 59% more likely to be arrested as a juvenile One study showed 76% of the serial rapists were abused when young. Only about 10% of abused children go on to commit crimes.
Juvenile “Delinquency” Many Juvenile offenders are diagnosed with CONDUCT DISORDER Causes of juvenile delinquency: Poor parenting / upbringing Poor parenting / upbringing Psychological disorders Psychological disorders Low intelligence Low intelligence Every state makes their own rules with regard to who is a juvenile
Juvenile Courts Juvenile courts less formal than adult courts Early “JD’s” were sent to “REFORM SCHOOL” a type of prison school for troubled kids Their goal was to REHABILITATE not PUNISH Goal of Juvenile Justice Diversion: keeping juveniles from becoming adult criminals by: Diversion: keeping juveniles from becoming adult criminals by: CounselingCounseling Parental ReleaseParental Release
Landmark Court Cases regarding Juveniles: In Re Gault (1967) 15 year old boy (Gault) is arrested for making lewd phone calls Held by the police, questioned, and sentenced (6 years!) with no trial or input from his parents Supreme Court: Juveniles have the same rights as adults! Right to counsel Right to counsel Right to confront your accusers Right to confront your accusers Right to remain Silent Right to remain Silent
Roper v. Simmons (2005) Supreme Court rules: defendants under the age of 18 cannot be executed Violates the CRUEL AND UNUSUAL punishment prohibition of the 8 th Amendment.
New Jersey Agency: NJ Juvenile Justice Commission Emphasizes accountability and offers programs to create independent, productive and law abiding citizens. Emphasizes accountability and offers programs to create independent, productive and law abiding citizens. DIVERSION: Goal is to avoid incarceration DIVERSION: Goal is to avoid incarceration Top Juvenile crime in NJ: Robbery Juveniles: 59% of Arson arrests
Bringing down organized Crime R.I.C.O
R.I.C.O Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act 1970: RICO created to break up “organized crime” THE MAFIA MAFIA bosses did not ever directly commit crime. HOW DO YOU PROSECUTE THEM? Charge them under RICO Today RICO is used to prosecute any group that act illegally.