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Communicable Diseases. Definition Caused by direct or indirect spread of pathogens from one person to another. Caused by direct or indirect spread of.

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Presentation on theme: "Communicable Diseases. Definition Caused by direct or indirect spread of pathogens from one person to another. Caused by direct or indirect spread of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Communicable Diseases

2 Definition Caused by direct or indirect spread of pathogens from one person to another. Caused by direct or indirect spread of pathogens from one person to another.

3 Pathogens Definition -Tiny living creatures that cause disease. -Tiny living creatures that cause disease.

4 Types of pathogens Bacteria Bacteria Virus Virus Fungi Fungi Protozoan Protozoan

5 Bacteria (100 million will fit in a grain of sand.) (100 million will fit in a grain of sand.) Most common of all pathogens. Most common of all pathogens. Most DO NOT cause disease. Most DO NOT cause disease. Reproduces through cell division. Reproduces through cell division. Ex. Strep throat, lyme disease Ex. Strep throat, lyme disease

6 Strep Throat

7 Bacteria Video

8 Virus All viruses are considered Parasites All viruses are considered Parasites Smallest and simplest of microorganisms. Smallest and simplest of microorganisms. Can only live on living cells- tricks human cells to reproduce more viruses. Can only live on living cells- tricks human cells to reproduce more viruses. Reproduce until “cell burst” Reproduce until “cell burst” Examples- chicken pox, cold, flu, measles, rabies, HIV/AIDS Examples- chicken pox, cold, flu, measles, rabies, HIV/AIDS

9 Virus cont. Highly specific in types of cells they invade. Highly specific in types of cells they invade. Polio- nervous system Polio- nervous system Common cold –respiratory system Common cold –respiratory system Small pox, chicken pox, shingles- Skin cells. Small pox, chicken pox, shingles- Skin cells. Antibiotic drugs do not have an affect on viruses. Antibiotic drugs do not have an affect on viruses.

10 Cell Burst /kb03an01.htm /kb03an01.htm Video Video cssid=GQ2BQAMMHCT78JEXX6WWGAQ4 EC2M3584&sku=N6639 cssid=GQ2BQAMMHCT78JEXX6WWGAQ4 EC2M3584&sku=N6639 cssid=GQ2BQAMMHCT78JEXX6WWGAQ4 EC2M3584&sku=N6639 cssid=GQ2BQAMMHCT78JEXX6WWGAQ4 EC2M3584&sku=N6639

11 How a virus reproduces Cell Burst Cell Burst Cell Burst Cell Burst

12 Protozoan Most are harmless. Most are harmless. One celled organism One celled organism Grows in water Grows in water Multiples quickly in moist places Multiples quickly in moist places Ex. Malaria Ex. Malaria

13 Fungi Live off non-living things. Live off non-living things. Molds, yeast, and mushrooms Molds, yeast, and mushrooms Live in warm moist places. Live in warm moist places. Ex. Locker room or mats Ex. Locker room or mats ex. Ring worm / athletes foot ex. Ring worm / athletes foot

14 Fungi Athlete’s Foot Ring Worm

15 A. Immune system- Body’s Primary Defenses Against Diseases (nonspecific resistance = will react the same EVERY time a pathogen enters the body) Skin Skin Mucus Membrane Mucus Membrane Cilia Cilia Chemical barriers – tears and saliva Chemical barriers – tears and saliva Reflexes- Blinking, coughing, and sneezing. Reflexes- Blinking, coughing, and sneezing.

16 Body’s Defense Against Communicable Disease Skin Skin Most important – keeps out harmful germs Most important – keeps out harmful germs Produces sweat that kills some types of pathogens. Produces sweat that kills some types of pathogens.

17 Body’s Defense Against Communicable Disease Mucus Membrane Mucus Membrane Cells that line nose, mouth and throat. Cells that line nose, mouth and throat. Produce mucus to trap germs Produce mucus to trap germs

18 Body’s Defense Against Communicable Disease Cilia Cilia Wavelike hairs that sweep out germs Wavelike hairs that sweep out germs

19 Body’s Secondary Defenses Specific Resistance- more detailed then the primary defense. Kills and keeps record of pathogens. Fever White Blood Cells

20 Body’s Defense Against Communicable Disease Fever Fever Norm temp Norm temp When microorganisms multiply body temp increases. When microorganisms multiply body temp increases. Temp. increase slows multiplying Temp. increase slows multiplying

21 Body’s Defense Against Communicable Disease White blood cells White blood cells Special cells that fight infection Special cells that fight infection Kill pathogens by surrounding and swallowing Kill pathogens by surrounding and swallowing 1. Lymphocytes = WBC’s (4 types) 1. Lymphocytes = WBC’s (4 types)

22 Lymphocytes 4 types 4 types Killer T - attack Killer T - attack Are sent to destroy or attack antigens Are sent to destroy or attack antigens Helper T – control the strength and quality of immune response Helper T – control the strength and quality of immune response B Cells –produce antibodies B Cells –produce antibodies Macrophage- pac man like- take bite of pathogen and sends back info. to T-cells Macrophage- pac man like- take bite of pathogen and sends back info. to T-cells

23 How white blood cells work Virus enters body system- indirect or direct contact Virus enters body system- indirect or direct contact Macrophage- Bite virus and send antigen to T- cells Macrophage- Bite virus and send antigen to T- cells Helper T cells – act as messenger calling B cells Helper T cells – act as messenger calling B cells B Cells – create antibody to help kill pathogens and remove pathogens (interlocking parts) B Cells – create antibody to help kill pathogens and remove pathogens (interlocking parts) Virus can no longer invade body’s cells Virus can no longer invade body’s cells Kept on file – body has immunity Kept on file – body has immunity Killer T Cells – destroy virus Killer T Cells – destroy virus

24 White Blood Cells Macrophage – Macrophage – Pac-Man like garbage collectors. Pac-Man like garbage collectors. Take bites of invaders Take bites of invaders

25 Antigens and Antibodies Antigens- chemical code of pathogens. Contains critical info. about the pathogen Antigens- chemical code of pathogens. Contains critical info. about the pathogen Antibodies Antibodies 1. Are created by B-Cells 2. Antibodies latch to pathogen. Fits together like a lock and key. This prevents the virus from entering cells 2. Antibodies latch to pathogen. Fits together like a lock and key. This prevents the virus from entering cells

26 Active Immunity Active Immunity 2 types 2 types Natural – body gets disease & recovers Natural – body gets disease & recovers Recall immune response from previous illness Recall immune response from previous illness Vaccination Vaccination Dead or weakened strain of virus injected into you body. Dead or weakened strain of virus injected into you body. Body then destroys virus and creates antibodies against it. Body then destroys virus and creates antibodies against it.

27 Ways Disease Enter Body  Mouth  Eyes  Nose  Break in skin  Genitals

28 How diseases are spread Direct contact –touching infected area of person Direct contact –touching infected area of person Indirect contact-sneezing, coughing, sharing personal items Indirect contact-sneezing, coughing, sharing personal items Contact with animals and insects - bites Contact with animals and insects - bites Other contact- eating contaminated foods Other contact- eating contaminated foods

29 Prevention for communicable diseases Wash hand often!!! Wash hand often!!! Cover mouth when sneezing or coughing. Cover mouth when sneezing or coughing. Proper care of food Proper care of food Eat healthy and exercise Eat healthy and exercise Shower daily Shower daily Avoid tobacco and drugs Avoid tobacco and drugs

30

31 White blood cells defend against germs The immune system is made up of many different kinds of white blood cells. White blood cells work together to protect us against disease-causing germs.

32 Macrophages identify germs When a germ invades our bodies, macrophages gobble up the germ and display its surface shape, or antigen, for other immune cells to see.

33 Helper T cells direct the defense Helper T cells spot the foreign antigen on the macrophage and begin to multiply. They alert other white blood cells and direct the body's defense.

34 B cells make antibodies B cells start to make chemicals called antibodies. Antibodies lock onto foreign antigens making it easier for other immune cells to destroy them.

35 Killer T cells destroy germs Alerted by helper T cells, killer T cells multiply and destroy the invading germs. Working together, our white blood cells can usually destroy invading germs.

36 Problems with Immune System Immunodeficiency- Immunodeficiency- System not present or working properly System not present or working properly Some may be caused by medicines ( Chemotherapy) Some may be caused by medicines ( Chemotherapy) May be caused by infections (HIV, AIDS) May be caused by infections (HIV, AIDS)

37 Problems with Immune System Autoimmune disorders Autoimmune disorders Immune system mistakenly attacks body’s healthy organs. Immune system mistakenly attacks body’s healthy organs. Allergic Disorders Allergic Disorders System overreacts to exposure to antigens in environment. System overreacts to exposure to antigens in environment.

38 Common communicable diseases Common cold –see handout Common cold –see handout Hepatitis-see handout Hepatitis-see handout Mononucleosis-see handout Mononucleosis-see handout

39 REVIEW GAME RULES- RULES- 1. two teams 1. two teams 2. three strikes and your out 2. three strikes and your out 3. Must get the question COMPLETELY right in order to earn the points 3. Must get the question COMPLETELY right in order to earn the points 4. Two student compete to answer a non-related health question. The winning student asks his team if the want to play or pass…… 4. Two student compete to answer a non-related health question. The winning student asks his team if the want to play or pass…… 5. Object is the accumulate the most points 5. Object is the accumulate the most points

40 What are communicable disease? Diseases that are passed from person to person and caused by a pathogen. Diseases that are passed from person to person and caused by a pathogen.

41 Name the pathogen that causes the following diseases? HIV HIV Lyme disease Lyme disease Ringworm Ringworm

42 How does the following defense work to help protects us from getting sick Skin- Skin- Mucus member- Mucus member- Cilia- Cilia- Reflexes- Reflexes-

43 Answer to previous ? Keeps out most pathogens, and produced sweat to kill some pathogens Keeps out most pathogens, and produced sweat to kill some pathogens Produces mucus to trap pathogens Produces mucus to trap pathogens Wave-like hairs that sweep out germs Wave-like hairs that sweep out germs Blinking, coughing, sneezing Blinking, coughing, sneezing

44 Name the four types of pathogens that cause people to become ill? Bacteria Bacteria Virus Virus Fungi Fungi protozoa protozoa

45 Give three examples of how diseases are passed through indirect contact? Sneezing Sneezing Coughing Coughing Sharing personal item, i.e. lip gloss, drinking glass Sharing personal item, i.e. lip gloss, drinking glass Person to object Person to object Animal to person, i.e. – deer tick Animal to person, i.e. – deer tick

46 List three characteristics of a virus? Smallest and simplest of all pathogens Smallest and simplest of all pathogens Can only live and reproduce in a living cell Can only live and reproduce in a living cell They will only attack specific parts of the body They will only attack specific parts of the body Will eventually destroy the cell they invade Will eventually destroy the cell they invade Tricks human cell to clone the virus Tricks human cell to clone the virus

47 Name three ways pathogens can enter the body? Mouth Mouth Eyes Eyes Nose Nose Break in the skin Break in the skin Genitals Genitals ears ears

48 Name four types of white blood cells? Lymphocytes Lymphocytes A. Killer T-Cells A. Killer T-Cells B. Helper T-Cells B. Helper T-Cells C. B- Cells C. B- Cells D. Macrophage (pac-man) D. Macrophage (pac-man)

49 Name fours ways to prevent communicable disease from spreading? Wash hands often Wash hands often Cover mouth when sneezing or coughing Cover mouth when sneezing or coughing Proper food care- cook food thoroughly Proper food care- cook food thoroughly Eat healthy and exercise Eat healthy and exercise Shower daily Shower daily


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