Ecosystems Read pgs. 365-369 Vocab –22 Primary productivity –23 Producer –24 Consumer –25 Trophic level –26 Food chain –27 Food web –28 Herbivore –29 Carnivore Pred/Prey Lab Killer Bee Video Aliens of the Deep Video –30 Omnivore –31Detritivore –32 Decomposer –33 Energy pyramid –34 Biomass pyramid
Why do organisms live where they do? (a.k.a.habitat/physical area) 2 Questions to ask: A.How did they get there? B.Why do they stay?
A. How did they get there? Evolved in that location Migrated as conditions changed Just passing through Accidental introduction
B. Why do they stay? Available food or energy (probably most important) Competition for resources is low (there is always a limited supply)
Mates and nesting sites are available, along with suitable environment (important to survival of that species) Resources available to support offspring (water, building materials, oxygen, soil, prey, sunlight, etc.)
Classification by Niche (role) A. Trophic Level: (“feeding level”) –The relationship between what an organism eats and what eats it. –Where it fits into the food chain/web
B.Producer Organisms that can manufacture (make) their own food =(energy rich organic materials) Examples: green plants and bacteria Autotrophs: photosynthetic, chemosynthetic “Aliens of the Deep Video”
Alvin approaches a hydrothermal vent biocommunity Figure 15-23
Locations of deep-sea biocommunities Figure 15-24
C.Consumer Organisms that cannot manufacture their own food and must get it from an external source. 1.Primary consumer- 2.Secondary consumer- 3.Tertiary, quaternary, etc. 4.Omnivore 5.Detritivore- 6.Parasite/host- 7.Decomposer-
C.Consumer Organisms that cannot manufacture their own food and must get it from an external source. 1.Primary consumer- herbivore 2.Secondary consumer- carnivore 3.Tertiary, quaternary, etc. 4.Omnivore 5.Detritivore, scavenger- break down wastes and dead bodies earth worm, dermestid beetle 6.Parasite/host tapeworm, mosquito 7.Decomposer- fungi, bacteria: return nutrients to the soil for absorption
Important Quarter 2 Dates: CP #1 – 12/7 CP #2 – 1/7 Bonus #1 – 12/14 Bonus #2 – 1/9 CP Article Presentation – 1/22-1/25 CP People – Don’t forget…your article summaries are due Nov 7 …make sure that you follow the directions that I gave you or you will have to redo it!!!
How do we keep track of energy in ecosystems? Ecological Pyramids (3 types) –Numbers: counts individuals (does not discriminate by size) – can be an inaccurate indicator of energy at that level Ex. Caterpillars outnumber the trees that they feed on –Biomass: measures amount of living tissue (dry weight) grams –Energy: measures amount of energy stored in tissues (ex. fats = 9 Cal/gram carbohydrates/proteins = 4 Cal/gram)
**The # of trophic levels that can be maintained in an ecosystem is limited by a loss of potential energy 10kg grain 1 loaf of bread 1 person 1000 kg grain 1 cow Beef 1 person OR ** 10% transfer of energy
Grass Caterpillar Sparrow Snake Hawk Cat Rabbit Berries A practice food web:
Accidental Introductions Zebra Mussel – from Caspian Sea to Great Lakes (1986) from a ship –Now they are everywhere!!! –Problem: clogs water pipes, smoothers native clams, consumes plankton, no natural predators Killer Bees – genetically altered to make more honey –Africanized bees escaped and took over Brazilian honeybees –Problems arose: they are more aggressive, can travel longer distances, swarm, attack people –The real threat? Agriculture
Ecosystems Test Topics: Test on Monday 10/29 Food Web, Food Chain, Eco Pyramids Evaluation of Food Webs (identification of members, predict consequences of additions or deletions of members) Vocab 22-34 Text 365-369 Videos “Aliens” and “Killer Bees” Ecosystems Review WS from binder
Jeopardy easy 1. Killer bees are native to 2. Food chains always begin with a 3. What is the secondary consumer in the food chain 4. Synonym for trophic level 5. What is the producer at a thermal vent community? 6. Which organism is probably least abundant? Grass caterpillar sparrow snake coyote 7. Energy pyramids are measured in what unit
Easy answers 1. Killer bees are native toAfrica 2. Food chains always begin with a producer 3. What is the secondary consumer in the food chain? SPARROW 4. Synonym for trophic levelFEEDING LEVEL 5. What is the producer at a thermal vent community? BACTERIA 6. Which organism is probably least abundant? COYOTE 7. Energy pyramids are measured in what units? Calories Grass caterpillar sparrow snake coyote
medium 1. List 3 requirements of seeds to germinate 2. Compare fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in calories 3. Difference between a food web and a food chain 4. Difference between a heterotroph and autotroph 5. A consequence to humans from the introduction of killer bees (not death) 6. What is the consequence of doubling the caterpillars on the snake. Grass caterpillar sparrow snake coyote 7. Two important uses for the energy that comes from food digestion 8. How do decomposers benefit the ecosystem?
Medium answers 1. List 3 requirements for seeds to germinate WATER, HEAT, OXYGEN 2. Compare fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in calories 9 PER GRAM 4 3. Difference between a food web and a food chain 4. Difference between a heterotroph and autotroph 5. A consequence to humans from the introduction of killer bees (not death) AGRICULTURAL HARM 6. What is the consequence of doubling the caterpillars on the snake SNAKE UP b/c more sparrows to eat 7. Two important uses for the energy that comes from food digestion HEAT MOTION 8. How do decomposers benefit the ecosystem? RETURN NUTRIENTS TO SOIL FOR PLANTS
difficult 1. Name 3 differences between European and African Bees. 2. Draw and label the parts of a flower 3. Explain why there are few top carnivores IN ANY ECOSYSTEM 4. How many producers? How many carnivores? Which level has the most energy? 5. Why do organism stay where they are? What are their needs? (3) 6. How did they get where they are? (3)
1. Name 3 differences between European and African Bees. Aggression, pollination, honey production 2. Draw and label the parts of a flower 3. Explain why there are few top carnivores IN ANY ECOSYSTEM 4. How many producers? 1,500,000 How many carnivores? 90,001 Which level has the most energy? producer 5. Why do organism stay where they are? What are their needs? (3) FOOD, SHELTER, MATES (LOW COMPETITION) 6. How did they get where they are? (3)EVOLVED THERE, MIGRATION, PASSING THROUGH, ACCIDENTAL OR DELIBERATE INTRODUCTIONS Difficult answers