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“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Deviance 10e Chapter Four: Physical Violence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.

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Presentation on theme: "“ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Deviance 10e Chapter Four: Physical Violence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law."— Presentation transcript:

1 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Deviance 10e Chapter Four: Physical Violence This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Alex Thio

2 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Introduction Myths cloud our understanding of physical violence Myths cloud our understanding of physical violence E.g. African Americans are more likely to kill whites and that women kill their husbands due to infidelity E.g. African Americans are more likely to kill whites and that women kill their husbands due to infidelity Terrorism now accounts for much violence, especially in Israel and London Terrorism now accounts for much violence, especially in Israel and London

3 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Assault and Aggravated Assault Assault: unlawful use of physical force against another person Assault: unlawful use of physical force against another person Aggravated assault involves intent to kill or the use of a deadly weapon, where the victim survives rather than dies Aggravated assault involves intent to kill or the use of a deadly weapon, where the victim survives rather than dies Assaulters are less likely than murderers to use firearms Assaulters are less likely than murderers to use firearms Assault rises dramatically during the summer Assault rises dramatically during the summer

4 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Who is More Likely to Kill? Over 90% of murderers in the U.S. are in the lower classes Over 90% of murderers in the U.S. are in the lower classes While making up 12% of the general population, blacks account for 45% of the murders While making up 12% of the general population, blacks account for 45% of the murders Most killings are INTRA-racial Most killings are INTRA-racial

5 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Who is More Likely to Kill? – cont. Southern region has the highest rate (10 per 100,000) Southern region has the highest rate (10 per 100,000) Large cities have a significantly higher murder rate than small cities/rural areas Large cities have a significantly higher murder rate than small cities/rural areas More men than women kill, and kill other men More men than women kill, and kill other men Women usually kill in defense of themselves in an abusive relationship Women usually kill in defense of themselves in an abusive relationship Both male and female murderers are relatively young Both male and female murderers are relatively young highest murder rate is aged for males and aged for females highest murder rate is aged for males and aged for females

6 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 TABLE 4.1 How Urban and Rural Murder Rates Differ

7 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Who is More Likely to Kill? – cont. Today, the overall murder rate in the United States is lower than it was in the mid- 1980s Today, the overall murder rate in the United States is lower than it was in the mid- 1980s Since 1985 murders committed by teenagers are on the rise Since 1985 murders committed by teenagers are on the rise Reasons: many inner-city teenagers carry guns to protect themselves, availability of guns, dysfunctional families, drugs, the declining quality of public schools, and increased violence on TV and in the movies. Reasons: many inner-city teenagers carry guns to protect themselves, availability of guns, dysfunctional families, drugs, the declining quality of public schools, and increased violence on TV and in the movies.

8 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Patterns of Killing Fewer murders occur during fall and spring, and more during July and August; they also peak during December Fewer murders occur during fall and spring, and more during July and August; they also peak during December Saturday night is the time of week murders most often occur. Saturday night is the time of week murders most often occur. Higher class murders, though, are more premeditated and show no variation by time of year or week Higher class murders, though, are more premeditated and show no variation by time of year or week

9 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Patterns of Killing – cont. Men commit murders inside and outside the house Men commit murders inside and outside the house Women almost exclusively kill in their own homes, especially in the kitchen Women almost exclusively kill in their own homes, especially in the kitchen If guns were less available, many heated arguments would result in aggravated assaults rather than murders If guns were less available, many heated arguments would result in aggravated assaults rather than murders In America, over 10,000 handgun homicides occur each year In America, over 10,000 handgun homicides occur each year In other industrialized nations such as Canada, England, and Japan, where guns are much harder to get, the number is less than 100 In other industrialized nations such as Canada, England, and Japan, where guns are much harder to get, the number is less than 100

10 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Characteristics of Homicide Of all crimes, homicide is least likely to involve strangers (less than 20%) Of all crimes, homicide is least likely to involve strangers (less than 20%) In 1 of 4 homicides the victim first attacks his subsequent slayer (victim-precipitated homicide) In 1 of 4 homicides the victim first attacks his subsequent slayer (victim-precipitated homicide) most homicides result from a "character contest" among lower-class most homicides result from a "character contest" among lower-class

11 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Characteristics of Homicide – cont. Homicide-suicide offenders first kill another person and then themselves Homicide-suicide offenders first kill another person and then themselves Sociologists see suicide as remorse Sociologists see suicide as remorse Psychologists see suicide as psychosis Psychologists see suicide as psychosis Mass murder: killing a number of people at about the same time and place Mass murder: killing a number of people at about the same time and place Offenders usually die by their own hands or the hands of the police Offenders usually die by their own hands or the hands of the police Serial murder: involves killing a number of people one at a time. Serial murder: involves killing a number of people one at a time. Most murder in one city, plan what they do, stalk their victims, and lure them into traps Most murder in one city, plan what they do, stalk their victims, and lure them into traps Often suffered abuse while children and cannot feel remorse for hurting others. Often suffered abuse while children and cannot feel remorse for hurting others.

12 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Figure 4.1 Most Victims Know Their Killers

13 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 The Social Profile of Serial Killers Most serial killers: Most serial killers: Usually seem like ordinary people Usually seem like ordinary people Are typically blue collar workers Are typically blue collar workers Are usually white men in their late 20s or 30s Are usually white men in their late 20s or 30s Are typically motivated by an intense desire for power and sadism Are typically motivated by an intense desire for power and sadism

14 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Global Perspective: Homicide Homicide rates are higher in developing countries Homicide rates are higher in developing countries Latin America has the highest homicide rate in the world – characteristic of “machismo culture” Latin America has the highest homicide rate in the world – characteristic of “machismo culture” in the highly patriarchal societies such as the Middle East, women are likely to fall victim to “honor killings” by their male relatives in the highly patriarchal societies such as the Middle East, women are likely to fall victim to “honor killings” by their male relatives The U.S. has the highest homicide rate among developed countries The U.S. has the highest homicide rate among developed countries

15 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 School Violence School violence is attributed, in part, to the availability of guns, media violence, and a culture of violence School violence is attributed, in part, to the availability of guns, media violence, and a culture of violence Offenders are highly likely to be those rejected by parents and peers Offenders are highly likely to be those rejected by parents and peers

16 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Stalking Stalking: act of pursuing someone that creates the fear of being assaulted or killed Stalking: act of pursuing someone that creates the fear of being assaulted or killed Most stalkers know their victims Most stalkers know their victims Most cases are men stalking women Most cases are men stalking women No racial differences No racial differences

17 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Hate Killing 9,000 Americans per year experience hate crimes 9,000 Americans per year experience hate crimes African Americans and gays are the most likely victims African Americans and gays are the most likely victims Most hate killers are part of hate groups, which are often formed in prison Most hate killers are part of hate groups, which are often formed in prison Three types of hate killers: Three types of hate killers: thrill hate killers thrill hate killers defensive hate killers defensive hate killers mission hate killers mission hate killers

18 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Genocide Genocide: whole-scale killing of a racial or ethnic group Genocide: whole-scale killing of a racial or ethnic group Perpetrators have a job of killing others under orders Perpetrators have a job of killing others under orders Bystanders are average citizens who usually do nothing Bystanders are average citizens who usually do nothing

19 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Genocide – cont. Theories of genocide: Theories of genocide: physical or psychological separation between perpetrators and victims physical or psychological separation between perpetrators and victims dehumanization of victims dehumanization of victims obedience to authority when asked obedience to authority when asked psychological ability to dissociate from the insanity of killing psychological ability to dissociate from the insanity of killing Power – The more power that a government has, the greater its ability to carry out killing on a large scale Power – The more power that a government has, the greater its ability to carry out killing on a large scale

20 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Terrorism Terrorism: violence intended for a government but victims are usually innocent citizens Terrorism: violence intended for a government but victims are usually innocent citizens e.g. Timothy McVeigh, al Qaeda e.g. Timothy McVeigh, al Qaeda The suicide attacks of 9/11 were said to be waged against “the Great Satan” or the U.S., as part of a holy war The suicide attacks of 9/11 were said to be waged against “the Great Satan” or the U.S., as part of a holy war The U.S. has obtained assistance from friendly Muslin countries, such as Saudi Arabia and Pakistan The U.S. has obtained assistance from friendly Muslin countries, such as Saudi Arabia and Pakistan Following 9/11, most Muslim nations express less support for terrorism than in the past Following 9/11, most Muslim nations express less support for terrorism than in the past

21 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Why Do People Kill? Two popular theories: Two popular theories: 1. external restraint theory: tries to explain how the presence or absence of restraints controls the expression of frustration 2. subculture of violence: basic cause of high homicide rates in poor neighborhoods

22 “ Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Does the Death Penalty Deter Murder? The death penalty is not very effective in deterring murder The death penalty is not very effective in deterring murder However, it does prevent the offender from committing further crime However, it does prevent the offender from committing further crime And satisfies the societal cry for retribution And satisfies the societal cry for retribution


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