An Epidemiological Overview Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. In 2005, CVD accounted for approximately 37 percent of all deaths. CVD has been the number-one killer in the United States since 1900, except during the 1918 influenza pandemic. More than 2,400 Americans die from CVD each day. Among women, 1 in 2.6 are deaths from CVD.
ABC News Video: Heart Disease in America Discussion Questions 1.What preventive measures can be taken to avoid a heart attack? 2.What effect does a celebrity death from a certain illness have on how members of the public address their own health? | Heart Disease in America
Atherosclerosis Characterized by deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium, and fibrin in the inner lining of the artery Hyperlipidemia Abnormally high blood lipid level Plaque Buildup of deposits in the arteries
Coronary Heart Disease Myocardial infarction (MI), or heart attack Blood supplied to the heart is disrupted. Coronary thrombosis Blood clot in the coronary artery Embolus The blood clot is dislodged and moves through the circulatory system. Collateral circulation If blockage to the heart is minor, blood flow is rerouted.
Activity Break: CVD Risk Factors Get into groups of four to five students. Assign a note taker and a runner. When your group has the answer, run it up to me. List four nonmodifiable risk factors for CVD. List four modifiable risk factors for CVD.
Cholesterol and Triglycerides Two major types of cholesterol LDL, or low-density lipoprotein, is “bad” cholesterol that builds up on artery walls. HDL, or high-density lipoprotein, is “good” cholesterol that helps protect the body by removing cholesterol from artery walls and transporting it to the liver for elimination. Triglycerides are a common fat produced by your body. They do not cause arteries to thicken, but may speed the process.
Modify Dietary Habits Overweight people are more likely to develop heart disease and stroke. Heart health can be improved by good dietary habits. Consume 5 to10 milligrams of fiber per day. Consume approximately 2 grams of plant sterols per day (found in fruits, vegetables, nuts, seeds, cereals, legumes, and vegetable oils). Limit your salt intake.
Control Your Blood Pressure Hypertension is sustained high blood pressure. Called the “silent killer” because it has no symptoms Greater risk for CVD Formula for blood pressure: systolic over diastolic Systolic pressure is pressure applied to artery walls as the heart contracts. Diastolic pressure is pressure applied to the artery walls during relaxation phase.
Combined Risks: Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is a group of obesity-related risk factors that increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes. Indicated by three or more of the following: Abdominal obesity (40-inch waist in men; 35-inch waist in women) Elevated blood fat Low levels of HDL Elevated blood pressure Elevated fasting glucose greater than 100 mg/dL High levels of C-reactive proteins (inflammation)