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Lifestyle Diseases Forrest Dolgener, Ph.D. Professor School Health, Physical Education and Leisure Services.

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Presentation on theme: "Lifestyle Diseases Forrest Dolgener, Ph.D. Professor School Health, Physical Education and Leisure Services."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lifestyle Diseases Forrest Dolgener, Ph.D. Professor School Health, Physical Education and Leisure Services

2 Cardiovascular Diseases Incidence High Blood Pressure - 50,000,000 Coronary Heart Disease - 13,900,000 Stroke - 4,000,000 Rheumatic fever/heart disease - 1,800,000 More than 1 in 5 males and females have some form of CVD

3 Deaths from CVD Almost 1,000,000 deaths in 2005 –CAD is #1 cause of death in US –Stroke is #3 cause of death in US ~ 40% of all deaths Since 1900, CVD has been the No. 1 killer in U.S More than 2,600 Americans die each day from CVD CVD claims more lives than next 7 causes

4 Deaths from CVD Approximately half the deaths are females and half are males 36% of deaths occur prematurely (before age 75) If all forms of major cardiovascular disease were eliminated, life expectancy would rise by 10 years; If cancer were eliminated, life expectancy would rise 3 years.






10 Coronary Heart Disease Single largest killer of males and females Almost 500,000 deaths per year Half die within 1 hour of onset of symptoms In 48% of men and 63% of women who die suddenly, there were no previous symptoms

11 Women and CHD Women suffer heart attacks an average 10 years later than men Since 1984, CVD has killed more women than men 1 in 2 women will die from CVD; 1 in 26 will die from breast cancer.

12 Unalterable Risk Factors Age Gender Heredity

13 Alterable Risk Factors Sedentary Life Style High Blood Pressure High Blood Cholesterol Smoking Diabetes Mellitus

14 Heart Attack Warning Signs Chest Discomfort (angina pectoris) Discomfort in other areas of upper body Shortness of breath Cold sweat Nausea Light headedness

15 Cholesterol Types & Values Major cholesterol types –High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) –Low Density Lipoportein (LDL) –Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) Total Cholesterol = HLD + LDL + VLDL –TC < 200 mg/dl –LDL < 130 mg/dl

16 Risk Ratio (RR) RR = Total Cholesterol/HDL –if RR > 4.0 = increased risk –if RR < 4.0 = decreased risk You can lower your risk by either increasing HDL or decreasing TC or both

17 Risk Ratio Example Total Cholesterol = 250 mg/dl –HDL = 40 mg/dl –RR = 250/40 = 6.25 (risky) Total Cholesterol = 250 mg/dl –HDL = 65 mg/dl –RR = 3.8 (good)

18 Lowering Your Cholesterol Consume less saturated fat in the diet –eat lean meat and low fat dairyfoods –eat less processed foods –cook only with mono- or polyunsaturates Consume less cholesterol in the diet –eat lean meat and low fat dairy foods –use only vegetable oils (no tropical oils)

19 Hypertension Ideal pressure is < 120/80 Hypertension is >140/90. Hypertension can be reduced by: –Regular exercise program –Reduced sodium intake –Drugs


21 Stroke Warning Signs Sudden numbness or weakness of face, arm, leg, especially on one side of body Sudden confusion, problems speaking or understanding Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes Sudden loss of coordination, trouble walking, dizzy Sudden severe headache with no known cause

22 Unalterable Stroke Risk Factors Age Heredity Race Gender Previous transient ischemic attack (TIA)

23 Alterable Stroke Risk Factors High Blood Pressure Smoking Diabetes Mellitus High Cholesterol Physical Inactivity Obesity Atrial fibrillation Carotid or peripheral artery disease

24 Cancer Second leading cause of death Prostate - 334,000 (99%) Breast - 180,200 (97%) Lung - 178,000 (14%) Colon & Rectum - 131,200 (61%) Testicular - 7,200 (91%)

25 Early Warning Signs C - Change in bowel or bladder habits A - A sore throat that does not heal U - Unusual bleeding or discharge T - Thickening or lump I - Indigestion or difficulty swallowing O - Obvious change in wart or mole N - Nagging cough or hoarseness

26 Risk Factors Heredity Nutrition –high fat –low vegetables & fruits (anti-oxidants, fiber) Smoking Environment Sedentary Lifestyle

27 Causes of Skin Cancer Total amount of sun received Acute overexposure (sunburn) Most receive 80% of exposure by age 18 1 in 7 will develop some form of skin cancer in their lifetime

28 Tanning Tanning is the skin’s normal response to UV light Tanning is protective reaction to prevent further injury Tanning does not prevent skin cancer

29 Factors Determining UV Level UV light is greater today than in the past due to reduction in ozone layer The following increase UV light: –Altitude –Proximity to the equator –Less cloud cover

30 Risk Factors for Skin Cancer Genetics –Northern European heritage –Fair skin Environment –Geography –Sun Exposure

31 Types of Skin Cancer Basal Cell Carcinoma Squamous Cell Carcinoma Melanoma

32 Basal Cell Carcinoma Most common form of cancer Occurs in basal cells at the bottom of the epidermis Occurs most often in males Occurs on most exposed areas: face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders, back Rarely does it go deeper than epidermis and metastasize

33 Basal Cell Carcinoma



36 Squamous Cell Carcinoma Occurs in outer most cells of epidermis Second most common form of skin cancer Usually confined to epidermis but will eventually penetrate the underlying tissues and can metastasize. Most often occurs on exposed areas like basal cell carcinoma.

37 Squamous Cell Carcinoma


39 Melanoma Arises in melanocytes Most serious form of skin cancer Most rapidly increasing from of cancer Penetrates and metastasizes quickly Successful treatment dependent on early diagnosis.

40 Melanoma

41 Preventing Skin Cancer Minimize exposure to sun between hours of 10:00 am and 3:00 pm Apply SPF-15 sunscreen or higher when exposed Wear protective clothing & sun glasses Avoid UV radiation from tanning beds Protect your children!! Examine skin head to toe every 3 months

42 Clinical Screenings TESTGenderAGE Freq. Sigmoidoscopy M & F>503-5 Fecal Blood M & F>50yearly Digital Rectal M & F>40yearly Prostate & PSA M>50yearly Mammography F40?1-2 Pap Test F>18yearly

43 Top 10 Ways to Avoid Cancer Don’t smoke or chew Check your house for radon Perform regular BSE and TSE Females get annual pap test Get regular clinical screenings when age appropriate

44 Top 10 Continued Avoid sunburns Eat lots of vegetables Eat low fat Eat moderate protein Exercise

45 Diabetes Mellitus Abnormal carbohydrate metabolism due to lack of insulin or decreased insulin sensitivity Type I - insulin-dependent (IDDM) Type II - non-insulin dependent (NIDDM)

46 Symptoms of Diabetes Thirst Fatigue & Weakness Weight Loss Hunger Overeating Blurred Vision

47 Risk Factors for Diabetes Heredity Age Obesity Physical Inactivity


49 Benefits of Exercise Helps control weight Has an insulin-like effect May reduce the requirement for insulin

50 Osteoporosis Disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue Increases rate of bone fractures and skeletal abnormalities

51 Factors Affecting Peak Bone Mass Heredity Mechanical Gender Nutrition Endocrine

52 Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Age Gender Race Skeletal structure Menopause/menstrual history Lifestyle Family history Medications & Diseases

53 Bone Mass and Activity

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