2 Massage Defined Massage is manipulation of soft tissue MTs can: Encourage healthy lifestyles habitsSuggest general dietary modificationsTeach self-care massagePerform general assessments & formulate a plan of careUse hydrotherapy & aromatherapy to enhance massage
3 Incidence and Prevalence Cancer, a complex and frightening disease, is a leading cause of death in the U.S., and the incidence increases markedly with advancing age.The American Cancer Society estimates that nearly 1.4 million people in the U.S. are diagnosed with cancer, and over 550,000 die of cancer, each year.
4 A Life Affected By Cancer The thought of cancer brings fear, anxiety, and stress, including:Fear of deathFear of the treatment and disfigurementAnxiety related to long-term disabilityFinancial stress
5 How Massage Can HelpA knowledgeable, skilled therapist can help the client byReducing muscle tensionDecreasing painPromoting relaxationImproving sleep
6 Massage Can Help, cont’d. Massage alsoBolsters immune functionReduces or prevents edemaDecreases nauseaReduces fatigue that affects many patients with cancerMay improve the quality and survival of skin during radiation therapy
7 Research: Pain and Nausea Foot massage on hospitalized patients with cancer was found to reduce pain and nausea.1
8 Research: FatigueGentle back massage was given to patients with breast cancer who were undergoing radiation therapy. They reported increased degrees of tranquility and vitality and reduced tension and fatigue after the massage.2
9 Research: Increased Natural Killer Cells Massage reduced anxiety and depression and improved immune function, including increased natural killer cell number in women with breast cancer.3Women diagnosed with breast cancer received massage therapy, which increased their dopamine levels, natural-killer cells, and lymphocytes.4
10 Research: Depression, Anxiety, and Pain Massage given to hospitalized patients with ovarian cancer, who were undergoing chemotherapy. Patients who received massage indicated reductions in anxiety, depression, and pain.5Children with leukemia were provided daily massages by their parents. After a month, depressed mood decreased in the children's parents, and the children's white blood cell and neutrophil counts increased.6
11 Teach Massage to Caregivers Sometimes, receiving massage from a caregiver is more advantageous for the client.Caregivers often feel helpless……and giving caregivers this loving tool allows them to offer something special to their loved one in the form of a simple hand or foot massage.This approach benefits the giver and the receiver of massage.
12 Teaching Self MassageTeaching self-massage may help manage uncomfortable symptoms. This may include simple instructions inNeck massageShoulder massageFoot massageAbdominal massage
13 General Guidelines Note discomfort and use appropriate pressure Avoid Known tumor sitesCancerous lesions (e.g., skin cancers)Enlarged lymph nodesIrritated skinPorts
14 General Guidelines, cont’d. Note signs of fatigueTake your clients where they are at
15 General Guidelines, cont’d. DocumentClient symptoms and therapist your observationsAreas of the body worked and avoidedTechniques usedHow your client tolerated prior massage sessions
16 Cancer Treatments Take Their Toll These are enormously taxing on the body and have undesirable side effects, which includeHair lossLoss of organs or limbsFatigueAnemiaSkin changes from radiation
17 Specific Guidelines: Surgery Blood clots: avoid massage to the lower extremities as well as over the incision site for a wk to 10 days after the client is ambulatoryEdema: elevate, light stroking, massage proximal area first, avoid use of heat
18 Specific Guidelines: Radiation Avoid massaging irradiated areasIf fatigued, reduce massage to 30 minutes, and use lighter-than-normal pressure
19 Specific Guidelines: Chemotherapy Postpone massage in cases of feverReduce risk of exposure to infectionsRemind client to move slowly and carefully and assist if needed (i.e., dizzy spells)
20 Chemotherapy, cont’d.If nauseated, avoid rocking motions and aromatherapyIf mouth sores, avoid prone position and facial massage
21 Chemotherapy, cont’d.If hair loss, respect client wishes about having scalp exposed or unexposed and touched
22 Give the Gift of TouchYour manner and presence are as important as the touch you offer.Some clients need to cry, some need to express anger, and others need to convey their fears.Provide space for your clients to express their feelings with your attitude of compassion.Give your client respectful, attentive touch – it will be a welcomed gift.Cancer is a word, not a sentence. ~ John Diamond
23 ReferencesCoussens LM, Werb Z: Inflammation and cancer, Nature 420(6917): , 2002.Frazier MS, Drzymkowski JW: Essentials of human diseases and conditions, ed 3, Philadelphia, 2004, WB Saunders.Gould BE: Pathophysiology for the health-related professionals, ed 3, Philadelphia, 2006, WB Saunders.Kern SE: Progressive genetic abnormalities in human neoplasia. In Mendelsohn J et al, editors: The molecular basis of cancer, Philadelphia, 2001, WB Saunders.Kochanek KD et al: Deaths: final data for In: National vital statistics reports, vol 53, no 5, Hyattsville, Md, 2004, National Center for Health Statistics.McCance KL, Huether SE: Pathophysiology: the biologic basis for disease in adults and children, ed 5, St Louis, 2006, Mosby.Microsoft Office Clip Art
24 Research ReferencesGrealish L, Lomasney A, Whiteman B. Foot massage. A nursing intervention to modify the distressing symptoms of pain and nausea in patients hospitalized with cancer, Cancer Nurs 23: , 2000.Sims S:Slow stroke back massage for cancer patients, Nurs Times 82:47-50, 1986.Hernandez-Reif M et al: Breast cancer patients have improve immune and neuroendocrine function following massage therapy, J Psychosom Res 57:45-52, 2003.Hernandez-Reif M et al: Natural killer cells and lymphocytes are increased in women with breast cancer following massage therapy, Int J Neurosci 115: , 2005.Lawvere S: The effect of massage therapy in ovarian cancer patients. In: Rich G, editor: Massage therapy: the evidence for practice, New York, 2002, Mosby Elsevier.Field T et al: Leukemia immune changes following massage therapy, J Bodywork Mov Ther 3:1-5, 2001.24
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