Presentation on theme: "Leukocytes (white blood cells) LymphocytesPhagocytes T CellsB Cells Helper T Cells Killer T Cells Supressor T Cells Natural Killer T Cells Memory T Cells."— Presentation transcript:
Leukocytes (white blood cells) LymphocytesPhagocytes T CellsB Cells Helper T Cells Killer T Cells Supressor T Cells Natural Killer T Cells Memory T Cells Plasma B Cells Memory B Cells MacrophageEosinophils NeutrophilsBasophils
Macrophage Engulfs Foreign cell Macrophage Alerts Helper T Cells Helper T Activates Killer T cells Helper T Activates B Cells Suppressor T Cells shut down response Killer T cells Destroy invaders Memory T cells “remember” invasion Memory B cells “remember” invasion Plasma B cells Produce antibodies
Markers of Non-Self Foreign molecules carry distinctive markers. On “foreign” cells and viruses, these markers are the proteins on the surface of the membrane. Your immune system recognizes these foreigners as non-self. These markers are called antigens. One of the remarkable things about the immune system is its ability to recognize many millions of distinctive non-self molecules, and to respond by producing molecules such as these antibodies—and also cells—that can match and counteract each one of the non-self molecules. Any substance capable of triggering an immune response is known as an antigen. An antigen can be a protein on the surface of a bacterium or a virus, or even a portion or product of one of these organisms. Tissues or cells from another individual also act as antigens; that's why transplanted tissues are rejected as foreign.
Antibody Antibodies are produced by cells of the immune system to destroy and neutralize foreign particles and cells. Immune cells create antibodies that are specific to the antigen of the foreign invader. Each antibody is made up of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, shaped to form a Y. The sections that make up the tips of the Y's arms vary greatly from one antibody to another. It is these unique contours in the antigen-binding site that allow the antibody to recognize a specific matching antigen, much as a lock matches a key. The stem of the Y links the antibody to other participants in the immune defenses.
Next, the macrophage digests the virus and displays pieces of the virus called antigens on its surface. Nearby cells have now become infected by the attacking viruses. The immune response begins when a white blood cell called a macrophage encounters a virus and consumes it. Meanwhile, other viruses look for nearby cells to infect.
Unique among the many different helper T cells (another class of white blood cells) in the body, one particular helper T cell now recognizes the antigen displayed and binds to the macrophage. This union stimulates the production of chemical substances -- such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by the macrophage, and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-y) by the T cell -- that allow intercellular communication.
As part of the continuing process, IL-2 instructs other helper T's and a different class of T cells, the killer T's, to multiply. The proliferating helper T's in turn release substances that cause B cells to multiply and produce antibodies. The killer T cells now begin shooting holes in host cells that have been infected by viruses.
The antibodies released by the B cells bind to antigens on the surfaces of free-floating viruses. Besides making it easier for macrophages to destroy viruses, this binding signals blood components called complement to puncture holes in the viruses. Finally, as the infection is brought under control, the activated T and B cells are turned off by suppressor T cells. However, a few "memory cells" remain behind to respond quickly if the same virus attacks again.
Mounting an Immune Response Microbes attempting to get into the body must first get past the skin and mucous membranes, which not only pose a physical barrier but are rich in scavenger cells and antibodies. Next, they must elude a series of nonspecific defenses—cells and substances that attack all invaders. These include patrolling scavenger cells, complement, and various other enzymes and chemicals. Infectious agents that get past the nonspecific barriers must confront specific weapons tailored just for them. These include both antibodies and cells of the immune response. The cells of the immune response include different kinds of macrophages, T-cells and B cells. Almost all antigens trigger both nonspecific and specific responses.
Immunity: Short- and Long-Term Cell Memory Whenever T cells and B cells (immune cells) are activated, some become "memory" cells. The next time that an individual encounters that same antigen, the immune system is primed to destroy it quickly. Long-term immunity (active) can be stimulated not only by infection but also by vaccines. Long term immunity results in a number of memory cells that quickly become activated when a repeat infection occurs. Those memory cells “remember” how to make the specific antibodies to fight the infection. Short-term immunity (passive) can be transferred passively from one individual to another via antibody- containing serum; similarly, infants are protected by antibodies they receive from their mothers (primarily before birth). Antibodies are acquired, not made. Thus the effects are short term.
Cells of the Immune System Cells destined to become immune cells, like all blood cells, arise in the bone marrow from so-called stem cells. Cells of the immune system are types of white blood cells (WBC). Some develop into large cells- “devouring white blood cells” - known as phagocytes; phagocytes include monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils. Other large cells become granule- containing inflammatory cells such as eosinophils and basophils. Smaller white blood cells are called lymphocytes. The two major classes of lymphocytes are B cells and T cells.
Phagocytes and Granulocytes Phagocytes are large white cells that can engulf and digest foreign invaders. They include monocytes, which circulate in the blood, and macrophages, which are found in tissues throughout the body, as well as neutrophils, cells that circulate in the blood but move into tissues where they are needed. Macrophages are versatile cells; they act as scavengers, they secrete a wide variety of powerful chemicals, and they play an essential role in activating T cells. Neutrophils are not only phagocytes but also granulocytes: they contain granules filled with potent chemicals. These chemicals, in addition to destroying microorganisms, play a key role in acute inflammatory reactions. Other types of granulocytes are eosinophils and basophils. Mast cells are granule- containing cells in tissue.
B Cells B cells work chiefly by secreting soluble substances known as antibodies. Each B cell is programmed to make one specific antibody. When a B cell encounters its triggering antigen (along with various accessory cells), it gives rise to many large plasma cells. Each plasma cell is essentially a factory for producing that one specific antibody. Some B cells divide into memory cells that remain for long periods and are able to make specific antibodies to counter antigens that are already encountered.
T Cells T cells contribute to the immune defenses in two major ways. Some help regulate the complex workings of the immune system, while others are cytotoxic (killer) and directly contact infected cells and destroy them. Chief among the regulatory T cells are "helper/inducer" T cells. They are needed to activate many immune cells, including B cells and other T cells. Another subset of regulatory T cells acts as suppressor T cells, to turn off immune cells. Cytotoxic (killer) T cells help rid the body of cells that have been infected by viruses as well as cells that have been transformed by cancer. They are also responsible for the rejection of tissue and organ grafts.
Natural Killer Cells At least two types of lymphocytes are killer cells—cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells. To attack, cytotoxic T cells need to recognize a specific antigen, whereas natural killer or NK cells do not. In other words, cytotoxic killer T cells are specialists that target specific invaders, while natural killer are generalists. Both types contain granules filled with potent chemicals, and both types kill on contact. The killer binds to its target, aims its weapons, and delivers a burst of lethal chemicals.
Activation of B Cells to Make Antibody The B cell uses its receptor to bind a matching antigen, which it proceeds to engulf and process. Then it combines a fragment of antigen with its special marker, the class II protein. This combination of antigen and marker is recognized and bound by a T cell carrying a matching receptor. The binding activates the T cell, which then releases lymphokines— interleukins—that transform the B cell into an antibody- secreting plasma cell.
Activation of T Cells: Helper and Cytotoxic After an antigen-presenting cell such as a macrophage has ingested and processed an antigen, it presents the antigen fragment, along with a class II marker protein, to a matching helper T cell with a T4 receptor. The binding prompts the macrophage to release interleukins that allow the T cell to mature. A cytotoxic T cell recognizes antigens such as virus proteins,which are produced within a cell, in combination with a class I self-marker protein. With the cooperation of a helper T cell, the cytotoxic T cell matures. Then, when the mature cytotoxic T cell encounters its specific target antigen combined with a class I marker protein—for instance, on a body cell that has been infected with a virus—it is ready to attack and kill the target cell.
Disorders of the Immune System: AIDS When the immune system is lacking one or more of its components, the result is an immunodeficiency disorder. These can be inherited, acquired through infection, or produced as an inadvertent side effect of drugs such as those used to treat cancer or transplant patients. AIDS is an immunodeficiency disorder caused by a virus that destroys helper T cells and that is harbored in macrophages as well as helper (T4) T cells. The AIDS virus splices its DNA into the DNA of the cell it infects; the cell is thereafter directed to churn out new viruses.
This diagram shows 1. HIV binding to the CD4 protein 2. Injecting its RNA into the cell 3. & 4. Viral RNA becoming DNA 5. & 6. DNA entering the nucleus 7. & 8. DNA merging with the cell’s DNA 9. & 10. DNA producing viral RNA 11. & 12. Viral RNA assembling viral proteins 13. Viral proteins surround RNA and mature into a virus 14. A replicated virus is near complete. 15. & 16. The virus buds from the cell and leaves to find other CD4 cells.