The immune system project By Rachel S., Justin S., Jeff M., and Matt B.
definitions Macrophages- they are the garbage men of the immune system eating any invader that enters the blood stream. Helper T-cells- a subset of T-cells that carry the T4 marker and are essential for turning on antibody production. (it recognizes the “bad guys”)
B-cells - a type of white blood cell. They mature into plasma cells which can produce antibody proteins necessary to fight off infections.
Killer T-cells and suppressor T-cells Killer T-Cells: kill the invaders which are slowed down by antibodies. Suppressor T-cells: inhibit the responses of b-cells and other antigens (calls an end to the war).
Lymphnodes and Thymus glands Lymphnodes: Bean shaped organs that filters out bacteria. Thymus Gland: A primary organ high in the chest where Lymphocytes mature.
Antibodies and antigens Antibodies: protein molecules produced by b-cells as a primary immune defense Antigens: A substance that when introduced to the body provokes the production of an antibody.
Memory T-cells These cells remember a disease so they know how to attack it if it ever tries to attack again.
How each part of the immune system interacts Justin Samuels
Macrophages These cells are phagocytes, or eating cells. They are found in all tissues and act as voracious eaters. These cells are the front line of defense and eat the enemy and dead body cells.
Helper T-cells This is the next line of defense. They roam the body and command the other cells in the immune system to go fight a “war”. The helper t-cell can communicate with the phagocytes, B-cells, and killer T-cells to tell them to replicate and then go to fight.
B-cells B-cells are 3rd in defense and are found in lymphnodes. There, B-cells can replicate and turn into plasma cells after they mature. Plasma cells help by producing chemical antibodies making 10,000 molecules per second.
Killer T-cells As the next line in defense, killer T-cells destroy cells in the body that have been invaded by foreign organisms. The cells then eject enzymes which eat away the infected cell
Suppressor T-cells This cell stops or slows down the activity of b-cells and other T-cells
Memory T-cells This last cell helps by remembering the virus so if the invader tries to attack again they will know how to beat it.
Lymphnodes Battles occur in this place. They are located all over the body.
Thymus gland Where T-cells go to learn a specific job. It’s like school inside your body.
Ebola Virus A severe, often fatal diseaseA severe, often fatal disease Named after the river in ZaireNamed after the river in Zaire Exact origin of the virus is unknownExact origin of the virus is unknown Occurs in Congo, Gabon, Sudan, Ivory Coast, UgandaOccurs in Congo, Gabon, Sudan, Ivory Coast, Uganda
Marburg Virus A rare, severe type of fever virus that affects humans and non-human primatesA rare, severe type of fever virus that affects humans and non-human primates It, like Ebola, is also unknown, but thought to be in West KenyaIt, like Ebola, is also unknown, but thought to be in West Kenya 25% fatal25% fatal
Marburg Virus(Continued) SymptomsSymptoms –After an incubation period of 5-10 days, the onset of the disease is sudden and is marked by fever, chills, and headache. Around the fifth day after the onset of symptoms, a rash may occur. After that, Nausea, Vomiting, chest pain, a sore throat,abdominal pain, and diarrhea may then appear.
Respiratory Syncitial Virus Common cause of serious respiratory infectionsCommon cause of serious respiratory infections Happen in small children as well as the elderlyHappen in small children as well as the elderly 126,300 hospitalized annually in the U.S. by RSV126,300 hospitalized annually in the U.S. by RSV Major problem in Native AlaskaMajor problem in Native Alaska
Bacterias Lyme Disease Named after Old Lyme, CTNamed after Old Lyme, CT Disease caused by infectious tick bites- bacteria transmittedDisease caused by infectious tick bites- bacteria transmitted IXODES ticks (black legged) are responsibleIXODES ticks (black legged) are responsible found in New England, Mid- Atlantic, etcfound in New England, Mid- Atlantic, etc
Meningococcal Disease (Meningitis) Infection that surrounds back and fluid in spineInfection that surrounds back and fluid in spine Caused by a viral or bacterialCaused by a viral or bacterial
Meningitis (Continued) High fever, headache, and stiff neck are common symptoms of meningitis in anyone over the age of two years. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, discomfort looking into bright lights, confusion, and sleepiness.High fever, headache, and stiff neck are common symptoms of meningitis in anyone over the age of two years. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, discomfort looking into bright lights, confusion, and sleepiness.
Escherichia Coli (E. Coli) An emerging cause of foodborne illnessAn emerging cause of foodborne illness 73,000 cases of infection and 61 deaths occur in the U.S. every year73,000 cases of infection and 61 deaths occur in the U.S. every year Infection often leads to bloody diarrhea, and occasionally to kidney failureInfection often leads to bloody diarrhea, and occasionally to kidney failure
Vaccines are a weakened or dead virus that is injected into your body Vaccines put the virus in us. Then our b-cells make antibodies so when the live virus enters our bodies we can recognize and destroy it
Vaccines are made in many ways. For instance, the flu vaccine is made by growing the virus in a chicken egg.