5Eosinophils and Macrophages Eosinophils are a type of White Blood Cell.They fight infection and parasites.They also play a role in Allergic reactions.Eosinophils produce Interleukin 1 and Interleukin 2 (To be explained later as well).Macrophage, “Big Eaters,” a form of White Blood Cell.Operates in both the Non-specific and Specific Immune Systems (to be explained later)Also a Phagocyte, which means it engulfs pathogens and cellular debris, and then proceeds to digest it, this process is known as Phagocytosis.Macrophage!
6Antibodies & AntigensAntibodies are produced by B cells, when stimulated by lymphokines from helper T cells. The antibody attaches to the antigen, completing the signal, coding the infected cells for destruction.Antibodies are constructed of DNA fragments, making them so unique and almost innumerable.Antigens= a fragment of a protein or peptide from the pathogen, taken to the surface of the infected cell and bound in an MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecule.The class 1 MHC complex molecule and the foreign peptide form the antigen, which can be read by the receptors on Killer T cells.AntigenCellClass 1 MHC moleculePathogen
7T cells!Killer T cells- They find specifically coded infected cells, and then destroy them with cytotoxins. They may be directed by Helper T cellsHelper T cells- secrete lymphokines that direct B cells into producing antibodies and also direct the Killer T cells as to which cell they get to eliminate.Memory T cells- derived from Helper T cells, have the same properties as their parent cell, and circulates until the body encounters the pathogen its parent cells were designer for.Suppressor T cells- in charge of slowing and stopping the immune response after the foreign substance is destroyed.
8B cellsB Plasma Cells- when the B cell produces the antibody for a specific antigen, it begins to clone itself into B plasma cells, that produce more of that particular binding antibody.These cells release immunoglobulin, or antibodies.B plasma cells have a 5 to 7 day life-spanall its protein synthesis energy is going into the production of Antibodies, not self preservation.B Memory Cells- These are the same as B plasma cells, except they remain inactive until the secondary immune responseSecondary immune response is considered anytime the body encounters a pathogen after the first time. Quicker response time.Primary response is the first time the body encounters a specific pathogen, Lag period before B cells respond.
9NK CellsNK, stands for Natural Killers, meaning they do not need to be activated by a class 1 MHC receptorNK cells play a major role in the Innate Immune SystemActivated by interferons and macrophage-derived cytokinesContains a virus until killer T cells develop, and then kills the virus.
11Non-Specific Immune Response Also Known as the “Innate Immune SystemConsists of:Complement system, and three response types:Fever Response,Inflammatory Response,Interferon Response
12Inflammatory Response Occurs from Trauma.Releases BradykininCausing release of histamines.Histamine causes increased capillary dilation, subsequently increasing capillary permeability.Increase in fluids causes inflammation!Bradykinin is a protein that stimulates pain sensors as well as causing the release of histamines
13Interferon ResponseAs the name suggests, they interfere…with viral replication!Once the virus infects the cell, the cell creates a chemical protein called Interferon!Interferon inhibits viral reproduction between cells by binding to the receptors of uninfected cells.
14Fever ResponseThe response to toxins in the body, produced by bacteria, is to increase the internal temperature of the body.This affect is enhanced when cells release Pyrogen, a cytokine that resets the bodies temp. Also known as Interleukin 1!
15Complement System Main component of the Innate Immune System 3 primary ways to dispose of pathogens.1.)Chemical stimulation causes the complement protein to bind with any cell, like bacteria. Binding triggers activation of other complements, as well as attracting phagocytes.Complements can kill bacteria by punching a hole into their lipid membrane and essentially drowning them in water.2.) Some cells have sugar (polysaccharide) capsule shells, complement can’t directly bind.So they’re either eaten by macrophages, or 3) bound to a macrophage that then releases IL-6,IL-6 goes to the liver and produces a protein called Mannose. Mannose binds to the bacteria, allowing a complement to bind to it as well.ForeignCell
16InterleukinsOf Note: Interleukin 1, 2, and 6A form of cytokine, they act like neurotransmitters for the immune system, relaying messages.Interleukin 1:Responsible for fever responseControls some lymphocytesIncreases the number of bone marrow cellsCauses degeneration of joints between bonesInterleukin 6:-Secreted by macrophages, and sent to liver to produce Mannose, which is a protein that binds to sugars.- Helps with inflammation, especially from burnsInterleukin 2:-Key in discriminating between Self and foreign cells-Secreted by the binding of T cells to an antigen- Stimulates growth, differentiation, and survival of killer T cells.
17Specific Immune Response Also known as “Adaptive Immune System”Breaks down into two categories-Antibody- Mediated Immune Response (AMIR)Cell-Mediated Immune Response (CMIR)
18Antibody Mediated Immune Response Also known as Humoral Immune ResponseThe antibodies secreted by the B cells in AMIR attach to antigens and effectively “tag” specific cells for destruction, sparing the lives of the healthy cells.
19Flow of AMIRMacrophages roam body, engulfing infected extracellular materialsDegrades engulfed material into peptidesClass 2 MHC presents the infected peptideAs an AntigenAntigen received by Helper T cellsMacrophage returns to lymph nodes w/ antigenTh Cells secrete lymphokinesLymphokines direct B cells to release antibodiesAnd directs Tk cells to infected cells.Tk kills infected cells tagged by antibodies
20Flow of CMIR Host cells carry class 1 MHC molecules to outside of cell MHC binds to and displays peptide/protein fragment of pathogenAntigen recognized by Killer T cell antigen receptorsParasite and MHC form antigenKiller T cell releases cytotoxins into infected cells, and kills them
21Immunological MemoryThe reason why vaccines make sense, and we eventually build a tolerance to certain diseases…Vaccination is an introduction of a dormant or dead pathogen, which allows are body to do its primary immune response without the risk of actual sickness.It’s because after every encounter with a pathogen, both the T cells and the B cells differentiate into an inactive form of their parent cell. They remain inactive until the second immune response for that specific pathogen.
22Allergic reactionsThe allergy is the immune systems response to a harmless foreign substance, such as pollen or dust.Since the immune system is based primarily off of DNA, then it can be inferred that allergies are hereditary.
23Self vs. Not SelfLike most systems things can go wrong, such as when the immune system attacks itself, not recognizing the proteins that code a cell as “self.” When this happens it is known as an autoimmune disease.In the case of tissue implants, they may be rejected if the tissue cells don’t have the proper proteins to inactivate the complement system in a different humans body. So the complement kills the cells!In order for tissues to be accepted they also must have the proper MHC complex to pass as human cells, these proteins must be on the surface of the cells, as either of the two classes.
24The Immune System presented differently Immunological memoryCMIRAMIR
25Bibliography-Information The Human Biology Text book by Joseph ManninoAnd many, many, many, many other wikipedia pages…
27Words of the Day!Erythropoietin- glycoprotein that controls red blood cell production.Haematopoiesis- the process of making blood cells from hematopoietic stem cells.Agammaglobulinemia- the inability to make antibodies