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Unit 3B Human Form & Function Cells, metabolism & regulation Specific resistance.

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1 Unit 3B Human Form & Function Cells, metabolism & regulation Specific resistance

2 Study Guide Read: Our Human Species (3 rd edtn) Chapter 14, sections Complete: Human Biological Science Workbook Topic 9 – Specific Resistance

3 Specific immunity Specific immunity protects the body against specific substances (antigens). There are two types of specific immunity, cellular immunity and antibody mediated (humoral) immunity. Specific immunity is acquired through natural infection or immunisation.

4 Lymphatic system The lymphatic system comprises lymph, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, the spleen, tonsils and thymus. The lymphatic system plays a vital role in protecting the body from pathogens and cancer cells, and removing debris (e.g. old blood cells) from the circulation.

5 The lymphatic system Lymphatic duct Lymph vessels Lymph nodes

6 A lymph capillary Medical Art Services, Munich, Wellcome Images Lymph capillary Capillary Arteriole Venule

7 Section through a lymph node Afferent lymph vessels Efferent lymph vessels Medulla (macrophages) Germinal centre (B lymphocytes) Cortex (T lymphocytes) The Miles Kelly Art library, Wellcome Images

8 Elephantiasis Elephantiasis is a disease, often found in tropical countries, in which a small roundworm blocks the lymphatic vessels, usually in the legs or scrotum.

9 Lymphocyte Lymphocytes are specialised white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's specific immune system Lymphocytes have a spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin layer of non-granular cytoplasm.

10 B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes There are two types of lymphocytes; B lymphocytes (B cells) and T lymphocytes (T cells). Both types are produced in bone marrow. B lymphocytes are ‘educated’ (acquire immunological competence) in bone marrow. T lymphocytes are ‘educated’ in the thymus.

11 Thymus The thymus is a mass of glandular tissue located in the upper chest under the breastbone. The thymus is most active during puberty, but atrophies (gets smaller) in adults. Thymus Wellcome Photo Library

12 B cellsT cells Humoral immunity Antibody mediated immunity Cellular immunity Cell mediated immunity Chemical-based systemCell-based system Produce antibody (Ig)Produce killer cells Lymphocytes educated in bone marrow Lymphocytes educated in thymus Effective against extracellular bacteria ( some viruses) Effective against intracellular viruses & cancer cells (some bacteria)

13 Antigens and antibodies An antigen is a substance (such as a protein or peptide) that is recognised by the immune system and which initiates an immune response. Antibodies are globular proteins that are secreted by B lymphocytes and interact with specific antigens.

14 Antibody The variable portion, which is different in each antibody, allows an antibody to recognise its matching antigen.

15 Antibody Antibodies are complex proteins referred to as immunoglobulins (Ig). There are several types of antibodies, each having a specific function. Typically, antibodies immobilise foreign cells with which they come into contact by making them stick together (agglutination).

16 Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a group of genes that are unique in every individual. They code for small protein molecules that act as ‘self’ markers on all body cells. MHC molecules initiate the immune response by presenting antigen fragments to T cells.

17 Antibody mediated immunity Antigens on foreign cells, such as bacteria, are recognised by receptors on specific B cells. The antigen is digested by the B cell and antigen fragments are displayed on the cell surface. T helper cells with matching receptors become activated when they lock onto the antigen fragment.

18 The activated T cells secrete cytokines, (messenger proteins that regulate the immune system). Cytokines stimulate the B cell to divide, producing numerous plasma cells. The plasma cells secrete antibodies into the circulation.

19 Antibody mediated immunity 1. Pathogen displaying antigens B cell 2. Antigen recognised by compatible antibody T helper cell 3. B cell digests antigen & displays antigen fragments 4. T helper cell recognises antigen 5. Activated T helper cell releases cytokines 6. Cytokines cause B cell to mature into plasma cell 7. Plasma cell secretes antibody

20 Agglutination When antibodies come into contact with target antigens they lock onto them. This causes the antigen-bearing cells (often pathogens) to bind together (agglutinate), thus rendering them harmless. Mike Sobanski, Wellcome Images Agglutinated meningococcal cells

21 Agglutination

22 Cellular immunity A ‘sick’ cell is ingested by an antigen presenting cell (macrophage or dendritic cell). Antigen fragments bound to MHC molecules are displayed on surface of APC. Compatible T cells lock onto antigen-MHC complex and secrete cytokines.

23 Cytokines stimulate T cells to divide and differentiate into killer cells, helper cells and memory cells. Killer cells (cytotoxic T cells) destroy body cells infected by viruses or transformed by cancer. Helper T cells perform many immune functions. They are essential for activating cytotoxic T cells, and B cells. Memory cells remain in the body and enable the immune system to react rapidly should it encounter those same antigens again.

24 Antigen presenting cells Antigen presenting cell 1. Pathogen ingested by antigen presenting cell T cell 3. Antigen presented on MHC complex 4. T cell with complimentary antigen receptor site 2. Pathogen digested by APC

25 Antigen presenting cells Micrograph of a macrophage ingesting another cell (dark) by phagocytosis. Jerremy Skapper, Wellcome Images Micrograph of a dendritic cell. Judith Behnsen, Priyanka Narang, Mike Hasenberg, Frank Gunzer, Ursula Bilitewski, Nina Klippel, Manfred Rohde, Matthias Brock, Axel A. Brakhage, Matthias Gunzer

26 Cellular immunity 1. Pathogen ingested by macrophage or dendritic cell 2. Pathogen digested & fragments presented to T cells Helper T cell Killer T cell 4. Cytokines stimulate killer T cells to divide Helper T cell Memory T cell 3. Helper T cells secrete cytokines Cytokines activate B pathway B cell 5. Killer T cells hunt and destroy infected cells

27 Primary and secondary responses Primary response Secondary response Time (weeks) Antibody conc in serum The primary response takes about two weeks to peak and antibody levels do not remain high. During the secondary response, antibody levels rise faster, reach higher concentrations and remain elevated for an extended period.

28 Active & passive immunity Active immunity (antigen activated) immune system activated memory cells produced (= immunity acquired) protection slow to develop but permanent Natural – involves B & T cells Artificial – vaccines (dead or attenuated) Passive immunity (antibody activated) immune system NOT activated NO memory cells formed (= NO immunity acquired) protection immediate but only temporary Natural – IgG cross placenta IgA in breast milk Artificial -serum

29 Artificial immunity A vaccine is a preparation made of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected into the body in order to stimulate the production of antibodies. Wellcome Library Vaccinations mimic the body’s natural immune response.

30 Dead vaccinesAttenuated vaccines  Contain killed microorganisms (using chemicals or heat).  Examples include vaccines against flu, cholera and hepatitis A.  Use live micro-organisms that have been disabled, or closely-related organisms that are less dangerous.  Attenuated vaccines generally produce a more durable immunological response but are less stable than dead vaccines.  Examples include vaccines against measles, rubella and mumps.

31 Active immunity ExposureDosageEffectsImmune response Natural Active pathogen Very small amount Person gets ill Acquires active immunity Artificial Dead or altered pathogen = vaccine Very large amount Person does not get ill Acquires active immunity

32 Passive immunity ExposureEffectsImmune response Natural Antibody enters fetus via placenta or breast milk Baby does not get ill - obtains immediate, short- term protection Baby does not acquire immunity – will get ill on subsequent exposure Artificial SerumPerson does not get ill - obtains immediate, short- term protection Person does not acquire immunity – will get ill on subsequent exposure


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