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Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix

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1 Developing the Logical Frame Work Matrix
Project Cycle Management ----- A short training course in project cycle management for subdivisions of MFAR in Sri Lanka MFAR, ICEIDA and UNU-FTP Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (DFAR) Sri Lanka Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA) Iceland United Nations University Fisheries Training Programme (UNU-FTP) Iceland

2 Content Logical framework matrix structure Sources of verification
Assumptions Example of logframe matrix, post harvest losses

3 Learning objectives After this lecture participants will understand the purpose, structure and how to build a logical framework matrix (logframe)

4 The logical framework approach
The logical framework approach was developed in the late 1960s to assist the US Agency of International Development (USAID) as a tool for: Detailed planning with clearly defined objectives that can be monitored Clear management responsibility Pre-determined evaluation process Page 57 EC guidelines The Logical Framework Approach (LFA) was developed in the late 1960s to assist the US Agency of International Development to improve its project planning and evaluation protocol. It was designed to address three basic concerns, namely that: Planning was too vague, without clearly defined objectives that could be used to monitor and evaluate the success (or failure) of a project; Management responsibilities were unclear; and Evaluation was often an adversarial process, because there was no common agreement as to what the project was really trying to achieve The LFA should be thought of as an ‘aid to thinking’. It allows information to be analyzed and organized in a structured way, so that important questions can be asked, weaknesses identified and decision makers can make informed decisions based on their improved understanding of the project rationale, its intended objectives and the means by which objectives will be achieved. It is useful to distinguish between the LFA, which is an analytical process(involving stakeholder analysis, problem analysis, objective setting and strategy selection), and the Logical Framework Matrix (LFM) that provides the documented product of the analytical process


6 The logical framework matrix
Also known as the log frame which provides the documented product of the analytical process It consists of a matrix with four columns and four rows (or more), which summarize the key elements of a project plan The project's hierarchy of objectives Project description or intervention logic The key external factors critical to the project’s success Assumptions How the project’s achievements will be monitored and evaluated Indicators and sources of verification

7 The logframe matrix Project strategy Objectively verifiable indicators
Sources of verification Assumptions Overall objectives Purpose Results Activities Means Costs PRE CONDITION This is the general structure of a logframe. LFA is being used by number of NGOs and developmental agencies, but they normally adopt it to their structure and their common practices Therefore you can expect to see e.g. that different agencies or counterparts may use different words to describe specific elements of the logframe Overall objectives are sometime called development objectives Purpose is sometimes called immediate objectives Results are sometimes called outputs

8 Information contained in the logframe matrix

9 Logframe - how do we use it?
The logframe is a format for presenting the results of the LFA as a process and is developed on the basis of the LFA tools applied earlier during the analysis phase Clear statement of what should be accomplished (outputs) Clear statement of important results that can be expected in the short to medium-term (purpose) and in the long run (goal) When the logframe has been completed it is used to design further scheduling logframe provides the documented product of the analytical process - but in the same time is a step or a link in the whole process. The main output of the LFA is the logframe matrix (short form for logical framework matrix) ミ it could also be called the メproductモ of the LFA. The logframe matrix is a format for presenting the results of the LFA as a process, and is developed on the basis of the LFA tools applied earlier during the analysis phase: Out of the strategy analysis (based on problem and stakeholder analysis and the analysis of objectives) the different levels of objectives are being transposed into the first column of the matrix (project strategy). During the planning phase of the LFA it is further elaborated which external factors are crucial for the projects success (assumptions), where to find the information required to assess itsユ success (indicators and sources of verification) which means are required to achieve the projectユs objectives and what the project will cost. On this basis activity and resource schedules can be established. (World Bank page 21)

10 Logframe in the LFA process
The logframe matrix PESTLE analysis Stakeholder analysis SWOT analysis Problem analysis Objective analysis Strategy analysis Throughout all of the LFA process we have monitoring, review and evaluation, depending what we are working on each time. Schedules Reports

11 Connecting the analysis to the logframe
We know what we have to do to tackle the focal problem by transforming the problems into objectives and selecting manageable tasks by doing the strategy analysis Here we can se how we use all of the analysis that is, building the problem and objective analysis based on PESTLE-, Stakeholder- and SWOT analysis. We use manageable tasks that we selected from the strategy analysis and turn them into activities. We give them reference numbers which will be the same reference numbers as will be used in the logframe matrix and schedules (activity, detailed activity and resource schedules (budget)) At this point in time we can start to fill in the logframe matrix. Because we have the reasons why we want to do things, who should be involved, the purpose and overall objective (based on the focal problem) etc. then we have a clear guide as to how to write reports of what, why, who, when things are or should be done (performed)

12 The Logframe Structure
Vertical logic Identifies what the project itends to do and achieve Clarifies the causal relationships (means to end) Specifies important assumptions and risks Horizontal logic Specifies indicators to measure progress Identifies the sources / means by which indicators will be verifies

13 The logframe basics

is a bottom line condition of well-being of individuals, families, or communities. The PURPOSE / IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE is determined by asking the question “how will this goal be achieved” The OUTPUTS / RESULTS are the deliverables through which the purpose will be achieved. The ACTIVITIES are the main elements of project components through which the outputs are achieved

15 Means & Cost Means are the human, material and service resources (inputs) needed to carry out planned activities and management support activities Cost are the financial resources needed to carry out these activities Often means can be interchanged with resources

16 Indicators Objectively verifiable
1. Increase training in PCM within MFAR Base indicator Indicators Objectively verifiable 2. Twenty staff of MFAR and its subdivisions receive training in PCM Add quantity (how much) Indicators should include Quantity Qualities Time/dates Add quality / what kind of change 3. Training of mid level managers and professionals within MFAR in PCM increased by 20 (60 to 80) or 33,3% increase between years The 33,3% and 60-80? refer to the increase of participant between the years 2007 and 2008 Characteristics of indicators Objectively verifiable that means that different people should come to the same results when using the indicators in a monitoring or evaluation process; Independent from each other, each one relating to a specific objective Plausible in that the effects observed are direct results of project interventions Specific with regard to quality, quantity, target group, time/ period and place (the 5 dimensions of an indicator) Measurable (directly or indirectly), so that they can be assessed Based on accessible information also in terms of time and money Indicators and milestones form the basis for monitoring as they show to which extent a project’s intended objectives (first in the sense of progress) have been achieved The logical sequence laid down in the LFA between activities (that, carried out lead to) – outputs (that, achieved will lead to the achievement of the) and immediate objective helps to choose monitoring indicators The milestones defined in the activity schedule (based on the Logframe matrix) form part of the basis for monitoring Add time (by when) 4. Training in PCM of mid level managers and professionals within MFAR increased by 20 (60 to 80) by June 2007 or 33,3% increase between 2007 and 2008

17 Sources of verification (SoV)
Do appropriate external sources already exist (e.g. reports, statistics)? Are these sources specific enough? Are the sources reliable and accessible? Is the cost of obtaining the information reasonable? Should other sources be created?

18 SMART A good indicator should be SMART
Specific to the objective it is supposed to measure Measurable (either quantitatively or qualitatively) Available at an acceptable cost Relevant to the information needs of managers Time-bound so we know when we can expect the objective/target to be achieved

19 Assumptions When a choice is made on which objectives to pursue with a project, number of aspects may be left outside the scope of the project Aspects outside the project may still have to be attained in order to reach a project’s objectives They are then external factors that influence or even determine the success of the project, but lie outside the control of the project

20 Assumptions and pre-conditions
Problems identified from the stakeholder analysis that are not tackled by the project itself might have to be included Macro-economic, institutional-political, ecological and socio-cultural frame conditions, which cannot easily be influenced, should be considered for inclusion as assumptions A pre-condition is different from an assumption in that it is a condition that must be fulfilled or met before project activities can start

21 Assessment of assumptions

22 Killer assumptions The external factors that are essential for the project to achieve its objectives, but will most probably not be realised become so called killer assumptions If the project cannot be redesigned to achieve its objectives without having to rely on the realisation of the respective external factor it should be abandoned

23 Relationship between assumption and Objective hierarchy

24 General sequence of completion

25 Objectives - an example
Logical framework matrix Post harvest losses Project description Indicators Sources of verification Assumptions Overall objective: Improve the utilization of fisheries and aquatic resources for the benefit of the current and future generations. • Sustainable utilization of fish stocks • Strengthen possibilities of increased product value • Increased annual average income of fisher's household by 7% • Consistent and certified quality. • Annual stock size measurements • Census among fishermen, exporters, sales outlets and customers • Quality control measurements • Governmental export reports • Sample household surveys. Purpose/Immediate Objective: To minimize post harvest losses and improve quality and safety of fish products to acceptable standards. • 10% increase in annual export volume within the next 5 years • 10% annual increase in export value within the next 5 years • 8% annual increase of fish supply/production in domestic market within the next 5 years. • Governmental export reports • Sample surveys among fishermen, exporters, sales outlets and customers • Sample household surveys. • Political stability • Adequate institutional funding, Interest and determination • Sufficient stakeholder interest. These indicators are incomplete, discuss how they may be improved by adding quantity, quality and time

26 Logical framework matrix Sources of verification
Results - an example Logical framework matrix Post harvest losses Project description Indicators Sources of verification Assumptions Results/Outputs/ Deliverables: Improved fish handling. • 12% increase in HACCP certificated fish processing facilities for the next 5 years • 8% increase in ISO 9000 certificated fish processing facilities within the next 5 years. • 750 trained and certified fishers before the year • 7% increase in average income of small and medium sized fishery businesses in the next 3 years • 7% increase in the volume of landed fish in the next 3 years • 4% annual increase of HACCP certified multi day boats in the next 3 years. • HACCP registration reports • ISO registration reports • Govt. statistics • Govt. tax authorities. • NARA and DFAR have sufficient financial and human capacity to support development • Level of increased income is sufficient to make a significant difference fishery businesses. 1.2 Strengthen management practices to improve quality and profits. • 120 managers have undertaken a short training course in financial management before • 8% of multi-day boats apply an upper limit of days spent at sea to maximize/optimize quality instead of volume by 2010. • Training reports • Official quality valuation reports • Analysis of relevant governmental statistics. • Availability of qualified staff • Sustainability of harbor maintenance. These indicators are incomplete, discuss how they may be improved by improved by adding quantity, quality and time Under indicators – is it 7% inclreease in the volume of landed fish or 7% increase of harbors?

27 Logical framework matrix Sources of verification
Activities an example Logical framework matrix Post harvest losses Project description Indicators Sources of verification Assumptions Activities: Improved fish handling Select boat crews that are willing to co-operate on improvements in onboard fish handling Design a short training course in fish handling for fishers Train fishers on how to handle fish onboard Install temperature monitoring device onboard Initiate installment of cold chain procedure etc. Indicators • Short training course (STC) has been designed and course material is ready for printing • 10 locations have been selected to hold STC and 5 local coordinators have been hired to undertake practical preparations • 10 instructors have been hired to teach the STC • Etc. Input • Training coordinator • Technical adviser • Travel and training costs • Cost of new temperature monitoring equipment • Funding of a report on assessment on current "modus operandi" in Sri Lankan fisheries Include cost for activity here. • Inadequate willingness to seek changes and improvement • Lack of follow-up • Insufficient importance on quality controlled/orientated decision making These indicators are incomplete, discuss how they may be improved by improved by adding quantity, quality and time, Here we have also added inputs to increase specifications of what has to happen or being concluded before these activities should be considered completed.

28 and stakeholder commitment drive successful projects.”
“Clear objectives and stakeholder commitment drive successful projects.” World Bank

29 References European Commission (2004). Project Cycle Management Guidelines. Downloaded 1st March from: World Bank (2005). The logframe Handbook; A Logical Framework Approach To Project Cycle Management. Downloaded 2nd March 2007 from:

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