2Disease in Towns in the 1800s - Aims:Identify the main causes of poor healthExamine the main killer diseases in the 1800s.
3Key Questions How can we tell if a country has a poor standard of health?Low life expectancy – in the 1840s the average Scot would live until their early 40s.High infant mortality – in the 1850s 120 children out of every 1000 died before they reached the age of five.Existence of killer diseases e.g__________ epidemic killed 10,000 Scots.
4Key Questions What are the main causes of poor health? Slum Housing Poor diet/lifestyleLack of medical carePovertyPoor sanitationLack of clean waterSize of familiesAll of these problems existed in the 1800s thereforepeople had a very poor standard of health and wereoften at risk from catching killer diseases.
5Killer Diseases – Group Challenge You will be divided into groups of 3 or 4.Each group will have to investigate one of the killer diseases that existed in the 19th century (1800s)You will have two periods to complete this task.You will then present your findings to the class.
6Killer Diseases in the 19th Century (1800s) Cholera – caused by dirty water. Symptoms included cramps, diarrhoea, sickness. Coma/death in 50% of casesTyphoid – caused by contaminated water and food. Symptoms included fever, diarrhoea, rash. Possible death.Typhus – caused by body lice, overcrowding. Symptoms include fever, headaches. Possible death.Consumption/Tuberculosis – caused by overcrowding, bad diet, poor ventilation. Symptoms include coughing, spit up blood, fever. Possible death.
7Killer Diseases in the 19th Century (1800s) The evidence clearly shows that the killer diseases of the 1800s were directly linked to the poor living conditions.Housing conditions were poor in both the countryside and the town but in the towns overcrowding was greater and diseases spread rapidly.Cholera was the main killer affecting both rich and poor.
8Killer Diseases - Tasks Copy the table on Housing and Disease from page 57 of your textbook.Copy the key words from page 57 into your glossary.Now complete Task 31 on page 24 of the workguide.
9Improvements in Public Health Aims:Identify the main improvements in public health by the 1930s
10Dung heaps close to public wells Animal waste in streets Cities like Dundee on the east coast of Scotland were breeding grounds for disease.Dung heaps close to public wellsAnimal waste in streetsDundeeA ‘Cholera Magnet’Shared outdoor priviesOvercrowdingRotting meat dumped in streetsRefuse dumped in streets
11Cholera in GlasgowGlasgow with its vastly overcrowded housing also faced major problems with cholera.Most people relied on the River Clyde and public wells for their water supply.However water was often contaminated with sewage and industrial waste.
12Tackling the ProblemPeople were becoming increasingly aware of the link between dirt, disease and water.Areas of Glasgow which had a cleaner water supply had fewer cases of cholera.James Burns Russell one of Glasgow’s medical officers persuaded the council that something needed to be done to clean up Glasgow’s water supply. The result was Loch Katrine.
13Loch Katrine Loch Katrine is a small loch in the district of Stirling. A major engineering project took place to use Loch Katrine to provide the people of Glasgow with clean water.The water level was raised by 6 feet and two 26 mile aquaeducts were built to carry the water to a treatment works at Milngavie.
14Loch Katrine Loch Katrine was opened by Queen Victoria in 1859. It is the primary water reservoir for the city of Glasgow and delivers 50,000,000 gallons of water a day to the city.Providing people with clean water virtually wiped out typhoid and cholera in Glasgow.This was a major step forward in improving the quality of people’s health.
15Public Health Improvements in Glasgow in the 1800s Tasks:Complete Task 32 - Cholera in Scotland on page 25 of your workguide.For question 8 use this outline to help you.Public Health Improvements in Glasgow in the 1800s1847185018591860
16Improving Public Health In 1842 a civil servant, Edwin Chadwick published his ‘Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain’.His report proved that life expectancy was lower in the towns than in the countryside.Chadwick argued the government needed to improve people’s lives by improving sanitation and housing.The government then passed two public health laws – the 1848 Public Health Act set up local health boards but they had very little powers.
17Improving Public Health The 1875 Public Health Act was much more successful.Local authorities had to appoint a Medical Officer – it was their job to deal with infections and take action to stop disease spreading.Local authorities had to the power to lay sewers, drains and pavements, clean the streets, provide clean water and fire services.Local officers were appointed to check slaughterhouses and destroy contaminated food.
18Other ImprovementsBetter diet – due to the railways fresh food reached the towns and cities.Cheap soap and disinfectant – improved hygiene and reduced infections.Cheap cotton clothes – were easy to clean and improved hygieneBetter medicines and hospitals but people still had to pay for medical care.
19Other Improvements in Health Better DietDue to better transport fresh food reached the cities more easily.Soap and DisinfectantThese were cheaper to buy and helped to reduce infectionsCheap Cotton ClothesEasy to clean. This improved hygiene.Better Medicines and HospitalsBetter treatment for those who were ill
20Medical Care in the 1800s Aim: Examine how advances in medicine helped to improve the health of Scottish people.
21Medical Care in the 1800s The overall standard of medical care was poor for various reasons:Doctors did not fully understand the causes of certain diseases e.g. cholera.People had to pay for treatment and many could simply not afford it – diseases were not detected until it was too late to treat them.There were many other problems that needed to be tackled to improve health e.g. housing, sanitation. This would all cost MONEYHowever between a number of medicaldiscoveries were made which enabled doctors andnurses to treat people more effectively.
22Medical Discoveries1847James Young Simpson discovered chloroform. This was used as an anaesthetic in surgery and increased the survival rate of patients1864Louis Pasteur discovered that germs and microbes were the cause of disease. Made it easier for others to find cures for diseases.1882Robert KochDiscovered the germs that caused TB and Cholera. This was the first step towards finding a cure.1867Joseph ListerUsed antiseptics in surgery to clean wounds and prevent the growth of bacteria
23Invented X-Rays allowing doctors to diagnose disease Medical Discoveries1895William RoentgenInvented X-Rays allowing doctors to diagnose disease1906Calmette and Guerlin worked on a cure for TB. It became known as the BCG Vaccine1928Alexander FlemingDiscovered penicillin – an antibiotic that could a wide range of bacterial infections
24Medical Care in the 1800sYearDiscoveryHow This Improved Health
25The Liberal Reforms 1906-1914 Aims: Examine the main reforms (changes) introduced by the Liberal government to tackle poverty and improve health.
26Why Were Reforms Needed? Despite some improvements by 1900 much more needed to be done to tackle poor health in Britain.During the Boer War , one in three men who tried to join the army failed medical inspections.Poverty investigations showed that around a third of British people were living in poverty.People began to argue that the government should be doing more to help the poor.With more of the working class having the right to vote, political parties had to do something to attract their votes.
27The Liberal ReformsIn 1906 the Liberal party won the election.Over the next few years they introducedseveral reforms which helped to tackle povertyand poor health.School meals 1906School medical inspections 1907Old age pensions 1908Labour Exchanges 1909Unemployment and Sickness Insurance 1911
28The Liberal ReformsSchool Meals 1906 – local councils had the power to provide school meals.School Medical Inspections 1907 – regular health checks for childrenOld Age Pensions 1908 – over 70s given a weekly pensionLabour Exchanges 1909 – Helped unemployed people to find a jobUnemployment and Sickness Insurance 1911 – gave the unemployed and sick money to live on.
29Why Were These Reforms Important? They tried to tackle some of the key causes of poverty.The government was accepting they had a responsibility to help the poor.Tackling poverty would help to improve people’s health.But poor health was still a problem and many working class people could not afford to pay for medical treatment.
30Improvements in Health 1918-1939 During the inter-war years a number of changestook place which improved the nation’s health.There were improvements in:Public healthHygieneFamily PlanningHousingMedical CareDietDespite all of this the cost of medical care was still oneof the key reasons why British people had poor health.