Disease in Towns in the 1800s - Aims: Identify the main causes of poor health Examine the main killer diseases in the 1800s.
Key Questions How can we tell if a country has a poor standard of health? Low life expectancy – in the 1840s the average Scot would live until their early 40s. High infant mortality – in the 1850s 120 children out of every 1000 died before they reached the age of five. Existence of killer diseases e.g. 1831-1833 __________ epidemic killed 10,000 Scots.
Key Questions What are the main causes of poor health? Slum Housing Poor diet/lifestyle Lack of medical care Poverty Poor sanitation Lack of clean water Size of families All of these problems existed in the 1800s therefore people had a very poor standard of health and were often at risk from catching killer diseases.
Killer Diseases – Group Challenge You will be divided into groups of 3 or 4. Each group will have to investigate one of the killer diseases that existed in the 19 th century (1800s) You will have two periods to complete this task. You will then present your findings to the class.
Killer Diseases in the 19 th Century (1800s) Cholera – caused by dirty water. Symptoms included cramps, diarrhoea, sickness. Coma/death in 50% of cases Typhoid – caused by contaminated water and food. Symptoms included fever, diarrhoea, rash. Possible death. Typhus – caused by body lice, overcrowding. Symptoms include fever, headaches. Possible death. Consumption/Tuberculosis – caused by overcrowding, bad diet, poor ventilation. Symptoms include coughing, spit up blood, fever. Possible death.
Killer Diseases in the 19 th Century (1800s) The evidence clearly shows that the killer diseases of the 1800s were directly linked to the poor living conditions. Housing conditions were poor in both the countryside and the town but in the towns overcrowding was greater and diseases spread rapidly. Cholera was the main killer affecting both rich and poor.
Killer Diseases - Tasks Copy the table on Housing and Disease from page 57 of your textbook. Copy the key words from page 57 into your glossary. Now complete Task 31 on page 24 of the workguide.
Improvements in Public Health Aims: Identify the main improvements in public health by the 1930s
Cities like Dundee on the east coast of Scotland were breeding grounds for disease. Dundee A ‘Cholera Magnet’ Dung heaps close to public wells Animal waste in streets Refuse dumped in streets Rotting meat dumped in streets Shared outdoor privies Overcrowding
Cholera in Glasgow Glasgow with its vastly overcrowded housing also faced major problems with cholera. Most people relied on the River Clyde and public wells for their water supply. However water was often contaminated with sewage and industrial waste.
Tackling the Problem People were becoming increasingly aware of the link between dirt, disease and water. Areas of Glasgow which had a cleaner water supply had fewer cases of cholera. James Burns Russell one of Glasgow’s medical officers persuaded the council that something needed to be done to clean up Glasgow’s water supply. The result was Loch Katrine.
Loch Katrine Loch Katrine is a small loch in the district of Stirling. A major engineering project took place to use Loch Katrine to provide the people of Glasgow with clean water. The water level was raised by 6 feet and two 26 mile aquaeducts were built to carry the water to a treatment works at Milngavie.
Loch Katrine Loch Katrine was opened by Queen Victoria in 1859. It is the primary water reservoir for the city of Glasgow and delivers 50,000,000 gallons of water a day to the city. Providing people with clean water virtually wiped out typhoid and cholera in Glasgow. This was a major step forward in improving the quality of people’s health.
Tasks: Complete Task 32 - Cholera in Scotland on page 25 of your workguide. For question 8 use this outline to help you. 1847185018591860 Public Health Improvements in Glasgow in the 1800s
Improving Public Health In 1842 a civil servant, Edwin Chadwick published his ‘Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain’. His report proved that life expectancy was lower in the towns than in the countryside. Chadwick argued the government needed to improve people’s lives by improving sanitation and housing. The government then passed two public health laws – the 1848 Public Health Act set up local health boards but they had very little powers.
Improving Public Health The 1875 Public Health Act was much more successful. Local authorities had to appoint a Medical Officer – it was their job to deal with infections and take action to stop disease spreading. Local authorities had to the power to lay sewers, drains and pavements, clean the streets, provide clean water and fire services. Local officers were appointed to check slaughterhouses and destroy contaminated food.
Other Improvements Better diet – due to the railways fresh food reached the towns and cities. Cheap soap and disinfectant – improved hygiene and reduced infections. Cheap cotton clothes – were easy to clean and improved hygiene Better medicines and hospitals but people still had to pay for medical care.
Other Improvements in Health Better Diet Due to better transport fresh food reached the cities more easily. Soap and Disinfectant These were cheaper to buy and helped to reduce infections Better Medicines and Hospitals Better treatment for those who were ill Cheap Cotton Clothes Easy to clean. This improved hygiene.
Medical Care in the 1800s Aim: Examine how advances in medicine helped to improve the health of Scottish people.
Medical Care in the 1800s The overall standard of medical care was poor for various reasons: Doctors did not fully understand the causes of certain diseases e.g. cholera. People had to pay for treatment and many could simply not afford it – diseases were not detected until it was too late to treat them. There were many other problems that needed to be tackled to improve health e.g. housing, sanitation. This would all cost MONEY However between 1830-1930 a number of medical discoveries were made which enabled doctors and nurses to treat people more effectively.
Medical Discoveries 1847 James Young Simpson discovered chloroform. This was used as an anaesthetic in surgery and increased the survival rate of patients 1864 Louis Pasteur discovered that germs and microbes were the cause of disease. Made it easier for others to find cures for diseases. 1867 Joseph Lister Used antiseptics in surgery to clean wounds and prevent the growth of bacteria 1882 Robert Koch Discovered the germs that caused TB and Cholera. This was the first step towards finding a cure.
Medical Discoveries 1895 William Roentgen Invented X-Rays allowing doctors to diagnose disease 1906 Calmette and Guerlin worked on a cure for TB. It became known as the BCG Vaccine 1928 Alexander Fleming Discovered penicillin – an antibiotic that could a wide range of bacterial infections
Medical Care in the 1800s YearDiscovery How This Improved Health
The Liberal Reforms 1906-1914 Aims: Examine the main reforms (changes) introduced by the Liberal government to tackle poverty and improve health.
Why Were Reforms Needed? Despite some improvements by 1900 much more needed to be done to tackle poor health in Britain. During the Boer War 1899-1902, one in three men who tried to join the army failed medical inspections. Poverty investigations showed that around a third of British people were living in poverty. People began to argue that the government should be doing more to help the poor. With more of the working class having the right to vote, political parties had to do something to attract their votes.
The Liberal Reforms 1906-1914 In 1906 the Liberal party won the election. Over the next few years they introduced several reforms which helped to tackle poverty and poor health. School meals 1906 School medical inspections 1907 Old age pensions 1908 Labour Exchanges 1909 Unemployment and Sickness Insurance 1911
The Liberal Reforms 1906-1914 School Meals 1906 – local councils had the power to provide school meals. School Medical Inspections 1907 – regular health checks for children Old Age Pensions 1908 – over 70s given a weekly pension Labour Exchanges 1909 – Helped unemployed people to find a job Unemployment and Sickness Insurance 1911 – gave the unemployed and sick money to live on.
Why Were These Reforms Important? They tried to tackle some of the key causes of poverty. The government was accepting they had a responsibility to help the poor. Tackling poverty would help to improve people’s health. But poor health was still a problem and many working class people could not afford to pay for medical treatment.
Improvements in Health 1918- 1939 During the inter-war years a number of changes took place which improved the nation’s health. There were improvements in: Public health Hygiene Family Planning Housing Medical Care Diet Despite all of this the cost of medical care was still one of the key reasons why British people had poor health.