The Liturgy: The Office Divine Office –Matins, about 3 a.m. –Lauds, at daybreak –Prime, at 6 a.m. –Terce, at 9 a.m. –Sext, at noon –None, at 3 p.m. –Vespers, at twilight –Compline, before bedtime Ora et labora The sanctification of the time
The Liturgy: The Mass Ordinary chants (9 th c.) 2. Kyrie 3. Gloria 9. Credo 3. Sanctus/ Benedictus 6. Agnus Dei 9. Ite missa est/ benedicamus Proper chants (7 th -8 th c.) 1. Introitus 6. Graduale 7. Alleluia 1. Offertorium 7. Communio Prayers and readings (4 th c.) I. liturgy of the Word 4. Collect 5. Epistle 8. Gospel II. liturgy of the Eucharist 2. Preface 4. Eucharistic prayer 5. Pater noster 8. Post-communion
The Liturgy: The Mass Ordinary chants –Kyrie –Gloria –Credo –Sanctus-Benedictus –Agnus Dei Proper chants –Introitus –Graduale –Alleluia –Offertorium –Communio
Reading the Chant The Books –Graduale (Mass Chant) –Antiphonale (Office Chant) Modern Tools –AMS –CAO Modern Books
The Books & Modern Tools The Mass –Graduale –Antiphonale Missarum Sextuplex René-Jean Hesbert's incipit edition of 6 early sources of mass chants (1935) –Cantus-Planus (1990s)Cantus-Planus The Office –Antiphonale –Corpus Antiphonalium Officii Hesbert's full text edition of 12 early sources of office chants (1963-75) –CANTUS (1980s–)CANTUS –CAO-ECE (1988–)CAO-ECE
Modern Books Graduale Romanum (Solesmes 1908) –Graduale Triplex (1979) –Beiträge zur Gregorianik since 21 (1996) Antiphonale Monasticum (Solesmes 1934) –Psalterium monasticum (1981) –Liber hymnarius cum invitatoriis & aliquibus responsoriis (1982) Paléographie musicale (Solesmes 1889-) Facsimile series Liber usualis (Solesmes 1896-)
St. Peter in Solesmes: A Benedictine abbey, it was the centre of the revival of Gregorian chant in the 19th and 20th centuries. A priory existed at Solesmes from 1010 to 1791; in 1833 Dom Prosper Gueranger (1805–75) revived Benedictine life there (cf. Peter Wagner, BGr)
Private Collection (MS du Mont- Renaud). Gradual and antiphoner from northern France. Text probably written in mid-10th century, neumes added late 10th or early 11th century (PalMus 16 ).
Transcription Neumes Notation –in campo aperto –adiastematic –non metrical St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 359. Cantatorium from St Gallen; dated very early 10th century (before 920). Neumatic notation with significative letters. Cantatorium contains only the soloists’ chants: graduals, alleluias and tracts (PalMus 2nd ser., 2 ).
The Notation –adiastematic –diastematic gothic roman/modern since 13 th C. The Words –Carmina scripturarum (1907) –On-line Bibles
Excursus: Chant Repertories The legend of Pope Gregory the Great depicted in the Hartker Antiphoner St Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 390–91 (“Hartker Antiphoner”). Antiphoner and tonary copied by Hartker, monk of St Gallen; dated 980–1011. Neumes with significative letters.
Basic Literature –Crocker, Richard L. An Introduction to Gregorian Chant. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2000. –Crocker, Richard L., and David Hiley. The Early Middle Ages to 1300. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1990. –Harper, John. The Forms and Orders of Western Liturgy from the 10 th to the 18 th Century. Oxford: Clarendon, 1991. –Hiley, David. Western Plainchant : A Handbook. Oxford: Clarendon, 1993. –Hughes, Andrew. Medieval Manuscripts for Mass and Office : A Guide to Their Organization and Terminology. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982. –Treitler, Leo. With Voice and Pen : Coming to Know Medieval Song and How It Was Made. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003