2Early Exploration & Contact Columbus 1492 arrived in Bahamas. Hispaniola. Columbus controversial legacy?Columbian Exchange: transfer of plants, animals, and germs/diseases. FSpanishconquistadores – search for gold “requerimiento”Encomienda system: land grants & natives to SpaniardsAsiento system: slave trade from W. Africa taxes supported monarch
3Jamestown & VirginiaJames I issues a to the Virginia Company a joint-stock company.Jamestown founded 1607 swampy area along James RiverProblems: malaria & dysentery, “gentlemen” didn’t want to work, searched for gold, “starving time”Survived under leadership of John Smith &trade w/ Powhatan ConfederacyJohn Rolfe (married to Pocahontas) developed tobacco - cash cropMost immigrants were indentured servants under Headright systemJames IJohn SmithJohn Rolfe
4PlymouthFounded for more religious reasons – Puritan Separatist “pilgrims” – based on Calvinism – belief in predestination1620 Mayflower – 100 passengers– less than half Separatists – permission from VA Company but landed in Massachusetts. Mayflower CompactLost ½ of settlers during 1st winter, but with leadership of William Bradford & Captain Miles Standish & help of Wampanoag Indians survived, 1st Thanksgiving in 1621Grew slowly & remained small colonyEconomy: fish, fur, and lumberSquantoGov. William Bradford
5Massachusetts Bay Colony Founded by moderate Puritans – persecution increased in England 1625 under Charles I1630 John Winthrop leads 1,000 to form Massachusetts Bay Colony in BostonWinthrop’s “A Model of Christian Charity” “We shall be as a city upon a hill” represents ideals of colony“Great Migration” English Civil War drove 15,000 settlers to New England during 1630sJohn Winthrop
6King Philip’s War ( }Metacom (King Philip) Chief of the Wampanoags united the tribes of New England.The war ended in failure for the IndiansMetacom beheaded and drawn and quartered.His son and wife sold into slavery.Never a serious threat in New England again!!
7Maryland Huh? Lord Baltimore formed a proprietary colony in 1634. Haven for CatholicsTobacco main cash crop.“Act of Toleration” 1649Freedom of worshipfor all!Death to allJews and Atheists !Huh?
8New Netherlands to New York James II Duke of YorkFounded by the Dutch in 16251664 British take over without a fightCenter of trade and very Cosmopolitan diverse population with many different languages.
9Pennsylvania Founded by William Penn in 1681 Quakers “Society of Friends”pacifists,fair treatment of Indians,more equality,religious freedomOpposed slaveryPhiladelphia “City of Brotherly Love”
10American Long Grain Rice Carolinas & GeorgiaNorth Carolina: Tobacco plantationsSouth Carolina: Rice & IndigoHigh demand for slaves from West AfricaBy 1710 black slaves were a majority in South Carolina.Georgia: Founded by James Oglethorpe in“Buffer-zone” from Spanish FloridaHaven for debtorsAmerican Long Grain Rice
12Rise of SlaveryFirst Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619 treated like indentured servants.Slavery not significant until the late 1600s1690: 13,000 slaves1750: more than 200,000
13Causes of Rise of Slavery Increased demand for slavesLess English indentured servantsWest Africans were experienced in Rice cultivation and more resistant to malaria.Cheap labor—tobacco prices fall, need large numbers of unskilled workers for rice & indigoEffect on population:By 1750 slaves were 50% of Virginia, 66% of South Carolina populations.
15The “Middle Passage”Harsh conditions: 13% died along journey from West Africa to Americas
16Slave Codes & Stono Rebellion Slave Codes: harsh laws passed in SouthStono Rebellion: 1739 in South Carolina – 20 slaves revolted from one plantation (80 others joined)50 slaves and 25 whites killed- largest slave revolt during the Colonial Period.
17The Enlightenment Early 1700s philosophy movement from Europe Reason over faith, science over religionBenjamin Franklin inventions & almanacQuestioned traditional monarchyJohn Locke “Natural Rights”
18The Great AwakeningRReligious revival in response to effects of Enlightenment in 1740sJonathan Edwards & George Whitefield leading ministers“Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God”God is angry but can forgive – anyone can repent & be savedBlamed science, greed, & traditional church for drop in faith
19Effects of the Great Awakening RELIGIONEmotional servicesMinisters lose authority many people study bible at homeNew Lights (supporters):Baptists, MethodistsOld Lights -(anti) traditionalists - ministers needed to interpret BibleCauses diversity of sects & competitionPOLITICSAffects all classes and regionsExperience shared by all American colonistsChanges how people view authority in generalLong-term drive to expand political equality
20MercantilismMercantilism: Dominant European economic system in 17th Century – self-sufficient kingdomsEmpires compete through favorable balance of trade = export manufactured goods, import wealth (gold/silver)Colonies exist to benefit the mother countryHighly government regulated economy“Navigation Acts” ( )Trade only on English or colonial-built shipsAll goods imported to colonies must first travel to English portsSpecified goods (tobacco) from colonies could only be exported to England (eventually includes most goods)Effects: NE shipbuilding prospered, military protection, but limited colonial manufacturing, higher prices for English imported goodsSome goods prohibited to export from colonies: Woolen Act (1699, Molasses Act of 1733 banned import from French W. IndiesColonists resented acts over timeled to smuggling of Dutch & Spanish goods, & corruptionMA Bay had charter revoked in 1684 due to rampant smuggling
21Map Quiz Which colonies are considered part of New England? Which colonies are considered Southern Colonies?Which colonies are considered the Middle Colonies?Which colony was originally founded by the Dutch?Which colony was founded by Quakers?
22Which colonies relied on tobacco as their cash crop? Which colony’s cash crop was indigo and rice?Which colony was founded by Lord Baltimore as a haven for Catholics?Which colony was founded as a buffer against the Spanish and a refuge for debtors?Which colonies were founded by Puritans?Which colony had the highest % of slaves?
23North America in 1750What caused the French & Indian War?