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The “New World” Colonization

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Presentation on theme: "The “New World” Colonization"— Presentation transcript:

1 The “New World” Colonization 1491-1700

2 Early Exploration & Contact
Columbus 1492 arrived in Bahamas. Hispaniola. Columbus controversial legacy? Columbian Exchange: transfer of plants, animals, and germs/diseases. FSpanish conquistadores – search for gold “requerimiento” Encomienda system: land grants & natives to Spaniards Asiento system: slave trade from W. Africa taxes supported monarch

3 Jamestown & Virginia James I issues a to the Virginia Company a joint-stock company. Jamestown founded 1607 swampy area along James River Problems: malaria & dysentery, “gentlemen” didn’t want to work, searched for gold, “starving time” Survived under leadership of John Smith &trade w/ Powhatan Confederacy John Rolfe (married to Pocahontas) developed tobacco - cash crop Most immigrants were indentured servants under Headright system James I John Smith John Rolfe

4 Plymouth Founded for more religious reasons – Puritan Separatist “pilgrims” – based on Calvinism – belief in predestination 1620 Mayflower – 100 passengers– less than half Separatists – permission from VA Company but landed in Massachusetts. Mayflower Compact Lost ½ of settlers during 1st winter, but with leadership of William Bradford & Captain Miles Standish & help of Wampanoag Indians survived, 1st Thanksgiving in 1621 Grew slowly & remained small colony Economy: fish, fur, and lumber Squanto Gov. William Bradford

5 Massachusetts Bay Colony
Founded by moderate Puritans – persecution increased in England 1625 under Charles I 1630 John Winthrop leads 1,000 to form Massachusetts Bay Colony in Boston Winthrop’s “A Model of Christian Charity” “We shall be as a city upon a hill” represents ideals of colony “Great Migration” English Civil War drove 15,000 settlers to New England during 1630s John Winthrop

6 King Philip’s War ( } Metacom (King Philip) Chief of the Wampanoags united the tribes of New England. The war ended in failure for the Indians Metacom beheaded and drawn and quartered. His son and wife sold into slavery. Never a serious threat in New England again!!

7 Maryland Huh? Lord Baltimore formed a proprietary colony in 1634.
Haven for Catholics Tobacco main cash crop. “Act of Toleration” 1649 Freedom of worship for all! Death to all Jews and Atheists ! Huh?

8 New Netherlands to New York
James II Duke of York Founded by the Dutch in 1625 1664 British take over without a fight Center of trade and very Cosmopolitan  diverse population with many different languages.

9 Pennsylvania Founded by William Penn in 1681
Quakers “Society of Friends” pacifists, fair treatment of Indians, more equality, religious freedom Opposed slavery Philadelphia “City of Brotherly Love”

10 American Long Grain Rice
Carolinas & Georgia North Carolina: Tobacco plantations South Carolina: Rice & Indigo High demand for slaves from West Africa By 1710  black slaves were a majority in South Carolina. Georgia: Founded by James Oglethorpe in “Buffer-zone” from Spanish Florida Haven for debtors American Long Grain Rice


12 Rise of Slavery First Africans arrived in Jamestown in 1619 treated like indentured servants. Slavery not significant until the late 1600s 1690: 13,000 slaves 1750: more than 200,000

13 Causes of Rise of Slavery
Increased demand for slaves Less English indentured servants West Africans were experienced in Rice cultivation and more resistant to malaria. Cheap labor—tobacco prices fall, need large numbers of unskilled workers for rice & indigo Effect on population: By 1750 slaves were 50% of Virginia, 66% of South Carolina populations.

14 The Atlantic “Triangular” Trade
S The Atlantic “Triangular” Trade Slaves – sugar – rum - guns

15 The “Middle Passage” Harsh conditions: 13% died along journey from West Africa to Americas

16 Slave Codes & Stono Rebellion
Slave Codes: harsh laws passed in South Stono Rebellion: 1739 in South Carolina – 20 slaves revolted from one plantation (80 others joined) 50 slaves and 25 whites killed- largest slave revolt during the Colonial Period.

17 The Enlightenment Early 1700s philosophy movement from Europe
Reason over faith, science over religion Benjamin Franklin inventions & almanac Questioned traditional monarchy John Locke “Natural Rights”

18 The Great Awakening R Religious revival in response to effects of Enlightenment in 1740s Jonathan Edwards & George Whitefield leading ministers “Sinners in the Hands of An Angry God” God is angry but can forgive – anyone can repent & be saved Blamed science, greed, & traditional church for drop in faith

19 Effects of the Great Awakening
RELIGION Emotional services Ministers lose authority many people study bible at home New Lights (supporters): Baptists, Methodists Old Lights -(anti) traditionalists - ministers needed to interpret Bible Causes diversity of sects & competition POLITICS Affects all classes and regions Experience shared by all American colonists Changes how people view authority in general Long-term drive to expand political equality

20 Mercantilism Mercantilism: Dominant European economic system in 17th Century – self-sufficient kingdoms Empires compete through favorable balance of trade = export manufactured goods, import wealth (gold/silver) Colonies exist to benefit the mother country Highly government regulated economy “Navigation Acts” ( ) Trade only on English or colonial-built ships All goods imported to colonies must first travel to English ports Specified goods (tobacco) from colonies could only be exported to England (eventually includes most goods) Effects: NE shipbuilding prospered, military protection, but limited colonial manufacturing, higher prices for English imported goods Some goods prohibited to export from colonies: Woolen Act (1699, Molasses Act of 1733 banned import from French W. Indies Colonists resented acts over time led to smuggling of Dutch & Spanish goods, & corruption MA Bay had charter revoked in 1684 due to rampant smuggling

21 Map Quiz Which colonies are considered part of New England?
Which colonies are considered Southern Colonies? Which colonies are considered the Middle Colonies? Which colony was originally founded by the Dutch? Which colony was founded by Quakers?

22 Which colonies relied on tobacco as their cash crop?
Which colony’s cash crop was indigo and rice? Which colony was founded by Lord Baltimore as a haven for Catholics? Which colony was founded as a buffer against the Spanish and a refuge for debtors? Which colonies were founded by Puritans? Which colony had the highest % of slaves?

23 North America in 1750 What caused the French & Indian War?

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