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Instructor: Thomas Christopher Martin 2 nd Year Phd Student

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1 Instructor: Thomas Christopher Martin 2 nd Year Phd Student E-Mail:

2 A little about myself… 1-2  Commerce Degree - 2010 - Memorial University of Newfoundland  MBA - 2012 - MUN / Université Catholique de Lyon  Ernst & Young - 2012/13 - Montreal & St. John’s (Canada)  Phd International Business – 2013 – Trinity College Dublin (Ireland)  Emerging Markets  Global analysis of firm level multinationality

3 This week its Accounting and Beyond 1-3 Session 1 Session 2 Tuesday Financial Statements/Expenses/Revenues Accounting Cycle & Accounts Wednesday The Balance Sheet The Income Statement Thursday The Cash Flow Statement Tools & Techniques Friday Tax Havens Exam

4 Grading Scheme 1-4  Exam at the end of the week (70%)  Will cover material from Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, & Friday  Multiple Choice Questions  Participation throughout the four days of lecturing (10%)  Open conversation about topics will be encouraged along with attendance of all sessions  Tax Haven Coverage by each assigned group (20%)  Work in groups during the 4 days to present findings on Tax Haven

5 Grading Scheme 5 Group Work  Friday 1 or 2 members of the group will present with or without the help of Powerpoint (7-10 minutes)  Choose a Tax Haven and explain what makes that country/region a haven for Multinationals  What large Multinationals have subsidiaries here?  Is this good or bad for the local economy?  What is your view on this country/region being a tax haven?  Submit a one page document summarizing your findings

6 Assigned Groups 6 Group Number 1 AndrascikovaViktoria 1 KučerováHana 2 DuduciMeri 2 L.KhaleelAhmed 3 DvořákováKristýna 3 LuoZihao 4 FialaOndřej 4 MatuškaJakub 5 GerasimovaSunchitsa 5 MelnikovaYulia 6 Gouri BoyinováSumudu Namali 6 NguyenThuy Dung 7 HroníčkováŠárka 7 NovakMartin 8 KhodykinaLiudmila 8 PelikánováIva 9 KlimíčekJan 9 PešiceOndřej 10 KopáčMichal 10 RakhmonovBurkhon 1 RopickáMartina 1 OLCINAANA 2 SchimonováMarika 2 BelovaAlena 3 StevensNasiru 3 SilvestreRafael 4 ŠimákováKristýna 4 BroermannDorothee 5 Terš, Bc.Ondřej 5 SpielmannFranck 6 TurkováMarkéta 6 KhodykinaLiudmila 7 VerbenkoKlavdiya 7 ŽīgursKristaps 8 Ye FangQi 8 NachidYassine 9 AdebayoKadiri Charles 10 Peinado de la Vega Joaquín

7 Lake and Lilypads 7

8 3 Hats 8 Sand Line Direction of vision Gun Man

9 Map or Maze 1-9 A map helps its user reach a desired destination through clarity of representation. A maze attempts to confuse its user by purposefully introducing conflicting elements and complexities that prevent reaching the desired goal. Financial statements have the potential for being both map and maze.

10 Financial Statements as a Map 1-10 Form the basis for understanding the financial position of a firm Allow users to assess historical and prospective financial performance Present clear representations of a firm’s financial health

11 Financial Statements as a Maze 1-11 Overwhelming amount of information Unreliable auditing Constantly changing and complex policies and reporting requirements Considerable discretion given to management Key information hidden or omitted

12 Map or Maze 1-12 The main objectives are: ensure that financial statements serve as a map, not a maze, demonstrate how to read and evaluate financial statements, provide the tools and techniques needed to complete a comprehensive financial statement analysis, and encourage intelligent decision making.

13 Map or Maze 1-13 Usefulness of Information Financial position Success of operations Policies and strategies of management Insight into future performance

14 Map or Maze 1-14 Volume of Information  Financial statements  Notes to the financial statements  Auditor’s report  Five-year summary of key financial data  High and low stock prices  Management’s discussion and analysis of operations  Other material

15 Map or Maze 1-15 Volume of Information Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) Issues Statements of Financial Accounting Standards (SFASs)

16 Map or Maze 1-16 Where to Find a Company’s Financial Statements Annual report  Financial statements  Public relations material  Sent to shareholders and prospective investors  Corporate website

17 Map or Maze 1-17 The Financial Statements Balance sheet (or statement of financial position) Income statement (or earnings statement) Statement of stockholders’ equity Statement of cash flows

18 Map or Maze 1-18 Notes to the Financial Statements Integral part of the statements Summary of the firm’s accounting policies Details about particular accounts Other supplementary information

19 Map or Maze 1-19 Auditor’s Report Attests to the fairness of the presentation of financial statements Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act of 2002

20 Map or Maze 1-20 Auditor’s Report  Types of reports  Unqualified reports (FS give a true and fair view)  Qualified reports (FS are misstated, no affect)  Adverse opinion (FS are misstated, not conforming with GAAP)  Disclaimer of opinion (Opinion cannot be formed on FS)  Unqualified opinion with explanatory language

21 Map or Maze 1-21 Financial Reporting Reforms SOX Title I – Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) SOX Title II – prohibits non-audit services during an external audit SOX Titles III and IV – corporate responsibility SOX Title IX – harsh penalties for violations

22 Map or Maze 1-22 Proxy Statement  Used to solicit shareholder votes  Important in assessing  who manages the firm  how management is paid  conflict of interest issues

23 Map or Maze 1-23 Missing and Hard-to-Find Information  Employee relations with management  Morale and efficiency of employees  Reputation of the firm  Firm’s prestige in the community  Effectiveness of management

24 Map or Maze 1-24 Continued Provisions for management succession Potential exposure to regulation changes Publicity in the media Companies operating in several lines of unrelated business

25 Quality of Financial Reporting 1-25 Many opportunities for management to affect quality Timing of revenue and expense recognition Discretionary items

26 Revenues 26 Assets earned by a company’s operations and business activities Revenue account is an equity account with credit balance Typically seen as…  Operating Revenues  Non-Operating Revenues

27 Revenues 27 Operating Revenue  Sales (Manufactures, Wholesalers, Retailers)  Rent (Landlord to Tenant)  Consulting Services (Professional Services Provided) Non-Operating Revenue  Interest Revenue

28 Revenues 28 Aaron’s Body Shop repairs cars for local auto dealers. Aaron is currently working on a fender repair for Bill’s Auto Lot. After Aaron finishes the repair, he sends Bill a $1,000 invoice for the labor and records the sale in his accounting system by debiting accounts receivable and crediting revenues. Aaron records the income because he performed the work and has earned the revenue even though Bill hasn’t actually paid Aaron yet.

29 Expenses 29 Costs incurred to generate revenue Expense accounts decrease the overall equity balance There are many examples of expenses that can occur for a business, all fit into 2 categories  Operating Expenses  Non-Operating Expenses

30 Expenses 30 Operating Expenses  Rent, Wages, Utilities, Advertising Non-Operating Expenses  Interest Expenses  Loan Interest from banks

31 Expenses 31 Corey’s Food Truck, Inc. is a local food company that delivers sandwiches. Corey places new deli orders for $100 every Monday to a local butcher. When Corey places his order, he debits supplies for $100 and credits cash for $100. This journal entry records the asset, cash, being used up to generate revenues by making sandwiches. At the end of the year how much does Corey spend on deli meat? This will be listed as an expense on his income statement.

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