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Git Branching What is a branch?. Review: Distributed - Snapshots Files are stored by SHA-1 hash rather than filename Stored in git database in compressed.

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Presentation on theme: "Git Branching What is a branch?. Review: Distributed - Snapshots Files are stored by SHA-1 hash rather than filename Stored in git database in compressed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Git Branching What is a branch?

2 Review: Distributed - Snapshots Files are stored by SHA-1 hash rather than filename Stored in git database in compressed format Must “checkout” from database into working directory to edit In this example, files A, B and C are tracked

3 Example commit, 3 files

4 After 3 commits

5 Default branch is master master moves forward automatically when you commit git push origin master … now you know what master means

6 Add a branch cmd: git branch testing Why is creating a branch in git cheap and quick? Because it’s just creating a 40-character SHA-1 checksum of the commit it points to

7 But you’re still on master HEAD = pointer to current branch NOTE: concept of HEAD is different from CVS

8 Use checkout to change cmd: git checkout testing

9 Make changes on that branch edit test.rb (e.g., vim test.rb) cmd: git commit –a –m ‘made a change’

10 Switch back to master cmd: git checkout master NOTE: This also reverts files in your working directory (e.g., c:\mycode) back to master. So edit to test.rb no longer in your working directory (but you haven’t lost it, as long as you committed before switching – remember it will be in your local database. But don’t delete.git!)

11 Change master branch edit test.rb again cmd: git commit –a –m ‘made other changes’

12 Example  Steps (for future reference)  Create Java Project  Create class TheBrancher, including main  git init  git add src/*  git commit -m "Initial load"  Updated source with a "leaf" variable public class TheBrancher { private String theLeaf; public void updateLeaf(String newLeaf) { theLeaf = newLeaf; } public void showLeaf() { System.out.println(theLeaf); } public static void main(String[] args) { TheBrancher brancher = new TheBrancher(); brancher.updateLeaf("Turning yellow for fall"); brancher.showLeaf(); }

13 Example, continued  git commit -am "added a leaf"  git log –graph –decorate --oneline  # create a branch  git branch needTree  # see the branch  git branch  # switch to new branch  git checkout needTree  private String theTree; public void makeATree() { theTree = "Aspen"; } @Override public String toString() { return "TheBrancher [theLeaf=" + theLeaf + ", theTree=" + theTree + "]"; } # and in main brancher.makeATree(); System.out.println(brancher);  git commit -am "Added a tree"  git status  # go back to master  git checkout master  # what happened in Eclipse?

14 Getting it back together  At this point, no changes have been made on master  Can easily “merge” the two branches  git checkout master  git branch –no-merged  git merge needTree  Done with FAST FORWARD option (just moves a pointer)

15 Basic Merging No conflicts

16 Need to switch to an urgent fix git checkout master git checkout –b hotfix vim index.html git commit –a –m ‘fixed broken code’ NOTE: git won’t let you switch to master if you have uncommitted changes that conflict with the code you’re checking out. So you should have a clean slate before you switch (stash and amend can deal with this – later topics) git checkout -b creates branch AND checks out

17 Now merge hotfix and master git checkout master git merge hotfix This will be a “fast forward” merge – because branch was directly upstream, git just moves pointer forward.

18 A little cleanup, then return to issue 53 git branch –d hotfix git checkout iss53 vim index.html git commit –a –m ‘finished footer’ Be careful with branch –d. OK in this example, just a duplicate pointer. May not always be the case. Note that work done on hotfix is not part of iss53 branch.

19 Basic merge $ git checkout master $ git merge iss53 Merge made by recursive. README | 1 + 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-) git identifies the best common ancestor to use for merge

20 Basic Merge result master now includes hotfix and iss53 Remove iss53 if you want: git branch –d iss53

21 Remote Branches Supplemental Material

22 Remote Branches  All the branching we’ve done so far has been local  Remote repositories (e.g., github) also have branches

23 Understanding remote branches Git server – it’s not always github! right now, only have master clone files from server into your working directory. Remote branch – on server – [remote]/[branch] clone names your remote origin by default Local branch – [branch]

24 Branches diverging You’ve made changes. Someone else pushed changes. master on remote NOT the same as your master! BUT, both are master (we’re not dealing with local branches yet)

25 Synchronize your work note: fetch doesn’t merge! Need to: git fetch origin git merge origin/master (handle conflicts if any, note that branch name is origin/master) git push You can also do: git pull origin master (does fetch and merge)

26 Tracking Branch  A tracking branch is a local branch that has a direct relation to a remote branch  If you’re on a tracking branch and type git push, Git knows which server and branch to push to  git pull on a tracking branch fetches remote references and merges  clone automatically creates a master branch that tracks origin/master. So git push and git pull work right out of the box.  You can add other tracking branches: git checkout --track

27 Forking  If you want to contribute to a project but don’t have push access, you can do a fork… create your own copy.  Main project can pull in those changes later by adding them as remotes and merging in the code from the fork.

28 Configuration  It’s a good idea to set up your.gitignore file  A global file (.gitignore_global) can also be very useful for ignoring files in every git repositories on your computer.  Local per-repository rules can be added to the.git/info/exclude file in your repository  Example for Java: *.class # Package Files # *.jar *.war *.ear Be sure to read! :

29 More useful info checkout-and-reset These three commands have entirely different purposes. They are not even remotely similar. git revert This command creates a new commit that undoes the changes from a previous commit. This command adds new history to the project (it doesn't modify existing history). git checkout This command checks-out content from the repository and puts it in your work tree. It can also have other effects, depending on how the command was invoked. For instance, it can also change which branch you are currently working on. This command doesn't make any changes to the history. git reset This command is a little more complicated. It actually does a couple of different things depending on how it is invoked. It modifies the index (the so-called "staging area"). Or it changes what commit a branch head is currently pointing at. This command may alter history (by changing the commit that a branch references).

30 Continued…  Using these commands  If a commit has been made somewhere in the project's history, and you later decide that the commit is wrong and should not have been done, then git revert is the tool for the job. It will undo the changes introduced by the bad commit, recording the "undo" in the history.  If you have modified a file in your working tree, but haven't committed the change, then you can use git checkout to checkout a fresh-from-repository copy of the file.  If you have made a commit, but haven't shared it with anyone else and you decide you don't want it, then you can use git reset to rewrite the history so that it looks as though you never made that commit.  These are just some of the possible usage scenarios. There are other commands that can be useful in some situations, and the above three commands have other uses as well.

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