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1 http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/photo_gallery/photogallery-earth.html

2 Note: I am not sure where this came from.

3 Burnet, Thomas (1635? -1715) Telluris theoria sacra. The theory of the earth : Containing an account of the original of the earth, and of all the general changes which it hath already undergone, or is to undergo, till the consummation of all things. The two first books concerning the deluge, and concerning paradise. London : Printed by R. Norton, for Walter Kettilby, 1684.

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6 PLATE Exploring Earth, Davidson, Reed, and Davis, Prentice Hall, 2 nd Edition, Figure 1.5, p. 6.

7 “Plate Tectonics,” The Basic Idea: Earth’s Dynamic Systems, Hamblin and Christiansen, Prentice Hall

8 Locations of the Major Tectonic “Plates” Note: this is the map I have often used. I like it, but can’t find it any more. The following one is close enough.

9 http://www.maps.com/ref_map.aspx?nav=RM&cid=679,1037&pid=12871

10 A Global Map of Earthquakes Also Shows the Plate Boundaries http://wwweprc.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/CSS/gallery1.html

11 http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/fs-131-02/CUShazard.html

12 The San Andreas Fault http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dyna mic/San_Andreas.html http://tapestry.usgs.gov/featur es/25sanandreas.html

13 A DEVASTATING EVENT: THE SUMATRA EARTHQUAKE OF DECEMBER 26, 2004 Note: I haven’t found this yet

14 COMPLEX PLATE BOUNDARY ZONE IN ASIA Northward motion of India deforms all of the region Creates many small microplates, and lots of LARGE EARTHQUAKES Exploring Earth, Davidson, Reed, and Davis, Prentice Hall, 2 nd Edition, Figure Box-3, p. 304.

15 http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/fliers/00mgg04.html

16 The process of subduction that has created Indonesia through volcanic activity, also makes it dangerous. Burma Microplate Sumatra Indian Plate Exploring Earth, Davidson, Reed, and Davis, Prentice Hall, 2 nd Edition, Figure 10.3, p. 289.

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18 http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/msh//climactic.html

19 Exploring Earth, Davidson, Reed, and Davis, Prentice Hall, 2 nd Edition, Figure Box-1, p. 444.

20 Courtesy of A. Dziewonski Seismic “Tomography” Has Allowed Us to Explore the Interior of Our Planet…. http://www.seismology.harvard.edu/projects/3D/

21 Exploring Earth, Davidson, Reed, and Davis, Prentice Hall, 2 nd Edition, Figure 10.3, p. 289.

22 This is what parts of the U.S. used to look like….. Note: I haven’t found this, or anything close enough yet.

23 Seismic Imaging Reveals the Most Likely Places to Find Oil and Natural Gas. Note: I haven’t found this, or anything close enough yet.

24 It also will also reveal the locations of the next big source of energy, methane gas hydrates. http://picturethis.pnl.gov/pic turet.nsf/All/53KTZG?open document http://www.uni-kiel.de/future- ocean/a2/bild2.gif

25 From the movie “The Core”

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28 This is an old print from Verne’s Journey to the Center of the Earth, but I can’t find a reference for it.

29 http://physics.missouristate.edu/New_site/faculty/mayanovic/ research_bob_mayanovic.html

30 National Geographic, January, 1996.

31 Courtesy of S. Zhong DOWNWELLING UPWELLING http://anquetil.colorado.edu/szhong/

32 Courtesy of Van Heijst et al. Subduction of ancient Pacific seafloor beneath North America ….and Notice the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. http://www.earth.ox. ac.uk/research/seis mology.htm

33 http://geology.asu.edu/research/deep_earth/deep_earth1.html

34 Fantasy Writer’s Idea of the Core-Mantle Boundary…. http://www.violetbooks.com/gallery/stjohn4.html

35 Artist’s Idea of the Core-Mantle Boundary…. Note: I haven’t found the reference for this yet.

36 Magnetic Field Lines in Earth’s Iron Core Courtesy of G. Glatzmaier Gary A. Glatzmaier & Paul H. Roberts, "A three-dimensional self-consistent computer simulation of a geomagnetic field reversal," Nature, 377, 203-209 (1995).

37 Magnetic Field Lines in Earth’s Iron Core The Field FLIPS RANDOMLY Every Few 100,000 Years (or so)! Courtesy of G. Glatzmaier Gary A. Glatzmaier & Paul H. Roberts, "A three- dimensional self-consistent computer simulation of a geomagnetic field reversal," Nature, 377, 203- 209 (1995).

38 Courtesy of G. Glatzmaier Magnetic Field Lines in Earth’s Iron Core The Field FLIPS RANDOMLY Every Few 100,000 Years (or so)! Gary A. Glatzmaier & Paul H. Roberts, "A three-dimensional self-consistent computer simulation of a geomagnetic field reversal," Nature, 377, 203-209 (1995).

39 Courtesy of G. Glatzmaier Magnetic Field Lines in Earth’s Iron Core The Field FLIPS RANDOMLY Every Few 100,000 Years (or so)! Gary A. Glatzmaier & Paul H. Roberts, "A three-dimensional self-consistent computer simulation of a geomagnetic field reversal," Nature, 377, 203-209 (1995).

40 Courtesy of G. Glatzmaier Magnetic Field Lines in Earth’s Iron Core The Field Strength has recently decreased by 10%. Are we beginning a new field reversal?? Gary A. Glatzmaier & Paul H. Roberts, "A three-dimensional self-consistent computer simulation of a geomagnetic field reversal," Nature, 377, 203-209 (1995).

41 http://geophysics.nmsu.edu/jni/introgeophys/01_w hat_is/icore_xc.gif

42 Magnetic field lines in the core. Gary A. Glatzmaier & Paul H. Roberts, "A three-dimensional self-consistent computer simulation of a geomagnetic field reversal," Nature, 377, 203-209 (1995).

43 http://www.exploratorium.edu/learni ng_studio/auroras/happen.html


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