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Air Toxics Inventories at the National, Regional, and Local Level Bob McConnell U.S. EPA, Region 1 Boston, MA

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Presentation on theme: "Air Toxics Inventories at the National, Regional, and Local Level Bob McConnell U.S. EPA, Region 1 Boston, MA"— Presentation transcript:

1 Air Toxics Inventories at the National, Regional, and Local Level Bob McConnell U.S. EPA, Region 1 Boston, MA {}

2 Geographic Scale of Inventories  EPA’s National Emissions Inventory (NEI)  HAP Inventory Improvements in New England  Local inventory developed by New Haven, CT

3 EPA’s National Inventory for HAPs  Most recent version is the draft 2002 NEI, available at: –  A more “user friendly” version is available at (for 1999): –  EPA’s NEI is prepared once every 3 years –1996, 1999, 2002 ……..  The emission estimates are from ….. –State, Local and Tribal agencies –EPA’s Emission Standards Division –Other EPA offices & programs (Transportation, TRI, etc)  Emission estimates prepared for all 188 HAPs defined by the CAA

4 1999 National Emission Inventory  From EPA’s Air Data website for 1999  Stationary source emissions > mobile source emissions Total HAPs

5 1999 Emissions Inventory for Texas  From EPA’s Air Data website for 1999  Similar to National inventory; slightly higher Onroad mobile contribution Total HAPs

6 1999 Emissions Inventory for Harris County, TX  From EPA’s Air Data website for 1999  Onroad mobile emissions greater still.  Mobile > stationary source emissions Total HAPs

7 HAP Inventories for U.S., Texas, and Harris County U.S. Texas Harris County

8 Top 6 HAPs at National, State, and County Level Pollutant Primary Source Benzene Mobile sources Formaldehyde Area sources {resins, fertilizer mfg., forest fires} Acetaldehyde Mobile sources Methylene chloride Area sources {degreasing solvent, paint remover} 1,3-Butadiene Mobile sources Perchloroethylene Point sources {degreasing solvent, dry cleaning}

9 Other HAPs Emitted in Large Amounts NationalTexas Harris County 7. Acrolein 7. 1,3-Dichloropropene 8. 1,3-Dichloropropene 8. Chloroform 9. Trichloroethylene 9. Chloroform 9. Acrolein 10. Chloroform 10. Trichloroethylene 10. Vinyl Chloride 11. Lead compounds 11. Ethylene oxide 11. Trichloroethylene 12. Manganese 12. Vinyl Chloride 12. Ethylene Dichloride 13. POM 13. Ethylene Dichloride 13. Carbon Tet. 14. Carbon Tet. 14. POM 14. Ethylene oxide 15. Nickel compounds 15. Carbon Tet. 15. Chromium comp.

10 Point Source Estimation Methods in the NEI  No emission cutoff used for inclusion as a point source –if facility level data exists, included as a point source  Data source rankings: –1. “Preferred” EPA MACT data –2. State, local, tribal data –3. Other EPA MACT data –4. TRI data  “Preferred” EPA MACT source categories: –Medical Waste Combustors –Medical Waste Incinerators –Brick & Clay Manufacturing –Coke Ovens  NEI includes data for all 188 CAA HAPs –Some states collect other HAPs; not currently put into NEI  NEI assigns a unique facility ID to plant locations

11 Development of Nonpoint (area) inventory  EPA gives preference to state, local, tribal data, except: –portable fuel containers –animal husbandry –agricultural fertilizers –biogenic, geogenic emission sources  Data origination codes –S, State agency –L, Local agency –R, Tribal agency –P, Regional planning organization –E, EPA data, from Emissions Inventory Group –M, EPA data, from Emission Standards Group

12 States that submitted Nonpoint data to EPA’s 2002 NEI

13 Onroad Mobile Source Estimates in the NEI  Developed using EPA’s NMIM model –this model uses Mobile 6 based emission factors  State data used, if provided, for: –Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) –Mobile 6 inputs  States can also just send alternative emissions  If no state data supplied: –Default VMT from FHA  Most states provided Onroad data for 2002 NEI  Onroad mobile estimates provided for 33 HAPs  Different fuel blends can be modeled

14 Nonroad Emission Estimates in 2002 NEI  Developed using NMIM –NMIM incorporates EPA’s NONROAD 2004 model –State supplied inputs to NONROAD used if provided –State supplied Nonroad emission estimates used if provided  Commercial Aircraft –FAA’s Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System  Commercial Marine Vessels –Applied speciation profiles to PM and VOC emission estimates –Used state data where provided  Locomotives –Applied speciation profiles to PM and VOC emission estimates –Used Dept. of Transportation data on county level rail activity to apportion national data to counties –Used state data where provided

15 EPA Region I Efforts to Improve HAP Inventories  1999: Regional workshop devoted to HAP inventory methods  Development of HAP inventory preparation plans –Meetings with all region 1 States  Focus on Point source HAP data collection –Some New England states already were collecting HAP data –Others, most notably Massachusetts, began collecting HAP data  2001 - 2002: Region 1 analysis of 1996 NATA Results –Identified pollutants of concern in New England  Defined as any HAP NATA showed exceeded cancer health benchmark  Region prepared and distributed detailed inventories for these pollutants  Developed comprehensive HAP website  Encouraged and supported local HAP mitigation efforts –New Haven, CT –Lawrence, MA –Maine Air Toxics Initiative

16 HAP Pollutants of Concern in New England AcetaldehydeChromium Acrolein Ethylene dibromide Benzene Ethylene dichloride 1,3-ButadieneFormaldehyde Carbon Tetrachloride Polycyclic organic matter Chloroform Diesel PM Based on 1996 NATA

17 1996 Benzene Emissions in Connecticut Source Category Emissions (tons/year) Total Point 0.13 Area & Nonpoint sources Gasoline distribution (Stage 1) 37.1 Gasoline distribution (Stage 2) 10.6 Misc. organic chemical processes 0.2 Landfills2.2 Nat. gas transmission & storage 6.6 Oil & nat. gas production 2.8 Forest Fires 81.0 Open burning 1.6 POTWs5.7 Stationary ICE engines 0.13 Architectural surface coating 6.7 Total Area & Nonpoint sources 154.7 Stationary sources

18 1996 Benzene Emissions in Connecticut Source Category Emissions (tons/year) Heavy duty diesel vehicles 24.2 Heavy duty gasoline vehicles 60.1 Light duty diesel trucks 2.2 Light duty diesel vehicles 4 Light duty gasoline trucks 576.3 Light duty gasoline vehicles 738.8 Motorcycles10.7 Total Onroad Benzene Emissions 1416.3 Aircraft3.7 Nonroad diesel 109.8 Nonroad gasoline, 2-stroke engines 146.2 Nonroad gasoline, 4-stroke engines 404.2 Commercial marine vessels 0 Total Nonroad Benzene Emissions 663.9 Mobile Sources

19 Inventory Improvements  Prioritizing pollutants made workload manageable  Providing detailed inventories to states eased review, fostered feedback –Benzene emissions from petroleum storage facilities –Chloroform emissions from pulp & paper mills –Identification of areas with open burning restrictions –Identification of closed, missing, and duplicate facilities

20 Development of Local Inventory for New Haven, CT  Coastal city bounded by hills  Junction of 2 major interstate highways  Population of 123,600  Nonattainment for ozone and PM2.5 as well  New Haven county had the Second largest amount of air toxics in New England

21 Source of Air Pollution in New Haven  Large stationary sources include petroleum storage facilities, fabric coaters, and metal products industries.  Smaller sources include many graphic arts and auto refinishing facilities.  Mobile sources include emissions from 2 major interstates, the Tweed-New Haven airport, the Providence and Worcester rail-line, and the Port of New Haven

22 Preparing a Local Inventory  EPA provided funding through our Community Air Toxics Assessment program  Work done by graduate students at Yale, New Haven Board of Health, and New Haven Office of City Plan  Effort made to inventory all mobile and stationary source categories –Focus ended up being on stationary sources  Final inventory used to focus local stakeholders on HAP mitigation strategies

23 Point Source Inventory Development  Started with a merged list of 33 sources from: –1999 NEI –2000 TRI –2000 CT-DEP VOC inventory (speciated)  Surveys sent to all sources –16/33 responded –Emissions went from 211 tpy to 114 tpy  Emissions from 13 of the 33 = 96% of total HAP emissions  Difficulties encountered included: –Lack of authority to require information from non-responders –trouble extracting data from EPA’s NEI database

24 Area Source Inventory Development  Area source activity data resources: –Surveys  Gas stations, dry cleaners, printers, auto refinishers –Local experts  Structure fires, traffic markings, residential heating (oil) –Local utility  Residential heating (nat. gas) –Existing research  Residential wood combustion –Per capita analysis  Arch. surface coating, consumer & commercial products –Employee data  Solvent cleaning, industrial surface coating

25 Comparison to NEI Derived Estimates Source Category NEI derived vs. Local estimate Res. Heating with Gas + 34% Automobile Refinishing + 28% Architectural Surf. Coating; Consumer Products 0 Stage 2 - 5% Structure Fires - 14% Dry Cleaning - 56% Aircraft Refueling - 67% Graphic Arts (- 85%) Res. Heating with Oil - 87% Traffic Markings Different set of HAPs Stage 1 No emissions in NEI

26 Onroad Mobile Source Emissions  Considered using EPA’s Mobile model directly –too difficult to perform sub-county run  Obtained local data from CT-DOT for: –Traffic counts –Vehicle mix  Used this data with emission factors from Mobile 6  Uncertainty with Onroad emission estimate –couldn’t address traffic congestion –believe that heavy duty diesel is being under-predicted

27 Nonroad Mobile Source Emissions  Aircraft –LTO data for Tweed New Haven Airport  Rail –Fuel consumption records obtained from the three local companies  Commercial Marine –EIA fuel consumption data, Waterborne Commerce Statistics  Remaining Nonroad sectors apportioned from county level

28 New Haven HAP Inventory by Category Total HAP Emissions: 997 tons 116 different HAPs

29 Emissions vs. Health Risk Top 10 by Emissions Top 10 by Health Risk Diesel PM ToluenePOM XyleneAcrolein MTBE2,2,4-TMP BenzeneFormaldehyde 2,2,4-TMPDioxin FormaldehydeBenzene Methyl Chloroform Chromium Ethyl Benzene 1,3-Butadiene N-HexanePropionaldehyde

30 HAP Risk Reduction Stakeholder Group  EPA  CT-DEP  New Haven Office of City Plan, Health Dept, EJ Network, Aldermen  Local Groups –Asthma Initiative –Environment Northeast –CT Fund for the Environment  NESCAUM  Yale University  PSEG (Electric Utility)  Congresswoman DeLauro’s Office

31 New Haven HAP Risk Reduction Strategy  Diesel vehicles –Early adoption of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel for public & private fleets; –school & transit bus retrofits –anti idling campaign –construction equipment emission controls  Passenger vehicles –VMT reduction efforts  Stationary sources –gasoline stations, energy efficiency efforts, renewables  Indoor air –Tools for Schools, indoor tobacco smoke outreach

32 Local HAP Inventory Development; Final Thoughts  Benefits –raised awareness at City Hall, and in local community –established City as key stakeholder in air pollution issues –gave legitimacy to reduction measures –established emissions baseline to measure reductions against  Concerns –just how good is the inventory? –modeling & monitoring needs remain unfulfilled  New Haven’s Website: –

33 HAP Inventory Improvement Needs  National reporting similar to criteria pollutants  More widespread use of tox-weighted HAP inventories  Additional $$ for State & Local HAP inventory projects  More source testing – improved speciation profiles

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