Presentation on theme: "A theory of relationships"— Presentation transcript:
1A theory of relationships Attachment TheoryA theory of relationships
2What is Attachment?…the capacity to form and maintain healthy emotional relationships which generally begin to develop in early childhood– Enduring bond with “special” person– Security & safety within context of thisrelationship– Includes soothing, comfort, & pleasure– Loss or threat of loss of special personresults in distress
3Background John Bowlby Harry Harlow Mary Ainsworth Adult Attachment Phillip ShaverCindy Hazan
4John BowlbyAttachment is the result of innate, interrelated human predispositions for infants to seek the attention of adults –The primary caregiver (PCG) – most often their mothers; part of biological basis of survivalAttachment is an “anchor” that allows child to explore worldDisturbance/disruption of initial attachment bond between child and PCG renders person insecure as an adult
5Harry Harlow Raised monkeys with cloth-covered or wire “mothers” Wire mother also provided milk to infants, but not cloth motherInfants monkeys spent more time clinging to cloth mothers – “contact comfort” compared to wire ones
6BackgroundHumans, especially infants, rely on “attachment figures” for protection, comfort, and emotional regulationThe “attachment behavioral system” is an evolved, innate proximity regulatorWhen threat abates, behavioral systems other than attachment (e.g., exploration, affiliation, care giving) can be activatedThere are systematic individual differences in attachment orientation: secure, anxious, avoidantThe theory applies “from the cradle to the grave” - Bowlby
710 Central Tenets 1. Attachment is an innate motivating force Seeking and maintaining contact with significant others is innate.This occurs throughout the life span.
810 Central Tenets 2. Secure dependency complements autonomy No such thing as complete independence or overdependencyThere is only effective and ineffective dependenceSecure dependence fosters autonomy and self-confidenceThe more secure attached we are the more separate and different we can be.Health means maintaining a felt sense of interdependency, rather than being self-sufficient and separate from others.
910 Central Tenets 3. Attachment offers a safe haven The presence of attachment figures provides comfort and security while perceived inaccessibility creates distress.Proximity is the natural antidote to feelings of anxiety and vulnerabilityPositive attachments offers a safe haven that offer a buffer against effects of stress and uncertainty.
1010 Central Tenets 4. Attachment offers a secure base Gives base from which individuals can explore their world and most adaptively respond to their environment.Secure base encourages exploration and a cognitive openness to new information.When we have this felt security, we are better able to reach out and offer support for others.
1110 Central Tenets 5. Accessibility and Responsiveness builds bonds Building blocks for secure attachment are emotional accessibility and responsivenessOne can be physically present but emotionally absentEmotional engagement and the trust that this engagement will be there when needed is most crucial.Any response, even anger, is better than none.Emotion is the key.If there is no engagement, no emotional responsiveness, then the message is “your signals do not matter to me and there is no connection between us.”
1210 Central Tenets 6. Fear and uncertainty activate attachment needs When an individual is threatened attachment needs for comfort and connection become salient and compelling, and attachment behaviors are activated.Attachment to key others is our primary protection against feelings of helplessness and meaningless.
1310 Central Tenets 7. The process of separation distress is predictable If attachment behaviors fail to evoke comforting responsiveness and contact from attachment figures, a predictable process of protest, clinging, depression and despair, ending eventually in detachment.Depression is a natural response to loss of connectionAnger can be seen as an attempt to make contact with an inaccessible attachment figure.
1410 Central Tenets8. Finite number of insecure forms of engagement can be identified.There are a number of ways that we have to deal with the unresponsiveness of attachment figures.Only so many ways of coping from a negative response to the question “Can I depend on you when I need you?”
1510 Central Tenets9. Attachment involves working models of self and othersAttachment strategies reflect ways of processing and dealing with emotionThese models of self and others come from thousands of interactions, and become expectations and biases that are carried forward into new relationships.
1610 Central Tenets 10. Isolation and loss are inherently traumatizing Attachment theory describes and explores the trauma of deprivation, loss, rejection, and abandonment by those we need the most and the enormous impact it has on us.These events have a major impact on personality formation and on a person’s ability to deal with other stresses in life.
17Attachment FiguresThose who will serve as attachment figures for children are:The ones who are most responsive to crying and to interact socially.Those who will serve as attachment figures for adults are:The ones who are most responsive to anxiety/fear and to social interaction
18Adult AttachmentFrom our childhood experiences we develop schemas that are concerned with dependability of others and the worth or lovableness of self.These schemes are easily maintained across time into adulthood as they are reinforced over and over again.In the literature these schemas are referred to as attachment styles.
194 types of adult attachment styles (Hazen & Shaver, 1994) QuestionsCan you count on this person to be there for you if you needed them?Are others trustworthy and responsive?Am I lovable and able to elicit caring?
20Answer: NOAvoidantFearful- Tend to recognize their need for others but avoid others and frame them as untrustworthy.Dismissing- Tend to deny their need for attachment and frame others as untrustworthy.
21Answer: MAYBE Anxious/preoccupied Tend to cling to attachment figures or aggressively demand reassurance, often fearing that they are somehow deficient or unlovable.
22Answer: YESSecureTend to believe that others are reliable and see themselves as lovable and worthy of care.
23Adapted from Fraley & Shaver (RGP, 2000) Attachment Patterns in Adulthood: Not Types, But Regions in a Two-Dimensional SpaceHIGH ANXIETYHIGH AVOIDANCESECUREPREOCCUPIEDFEARFUL-AVOIDANTDISMISSING-LOW ANXIETYLOW AVOIDANCEAdapted from Fraley & Shaver (RGP, 2000)
24Attachment system in adults (Shaver & Mikulincer, A&HD, 2002)Signs of threat?+Activation of other behavioral systemsNo-YesAttachment-system activationAttachment security, distress alleviationSecurity-based strategies+Is attachment figure available?Yes-NoInsecurity, compounding distressIs proximity seeking a viable option?Deactivating strategiesNoYesHyperactivating strategies
25“Felt Security” 1. Better Affect Regulation - less reactivity - less hyperarousal- less underarousal- more acknowledgement of support seeking
26“Felt Security” 2. Better Information Processing - more flexibility, curiosity, openness- tolerance of ambiguity and uncertainty3. Better communication- more ability to collaborate, to metacommunicate, to disclose, more assertive and emphatic
27“Felt Security” 4. Sense of Self is more: - coherent - elaborated - articulated- positive
28Attachment Highlights Bowlby: There is only effective & ineffective dependencyAutonomy & secure attachment are parts of the same coin.Attachment needs become most compelling in times of uncertainty & change
29Highlights1. Seeking and maintaining contact is viewed as the primary motivating principle from childhood into adult relationships.2. A secure connection offers a safe haven and a secure base.- Needs for connection, comfort and caring are key.
31Highlights 5. Emotion is the music of the attachment dance. 6. Therapy must be a safe haven, and a secure base.7. Predictable set of attachment strategies in response to distress.8. Attachment strategies define sense of Self and Others – Working Models9. Defines pivotal moments of healing/injury.
32Highlights Attachment styles are working models of self and others. The way we see ourselvesThe way we see othersThe way we see relationshipsPredict the way we will respond
33Role of Emotion Emotion is the music of the attachment dance. Affect will automatically arise when an attachment figure is perceived as inaccessible or unresponsive.Men and women seem to respond differently to their affect if attachment is threatened.Women tend to regulate their affect, which usually puts them in a complaining position (criticism).Men on the other hand seem to withdraw in order to contain their affect. (stonewalling)Both responses tend to evoke anger from the other partner, leading to a predictable sequence of responses. (Bowlby, 1988).
34Attachment InjuriesAn attachment injury occurs when one partner violates the expectation that the other will offer comfort and caring in times of danger and distress. It is characterized by an abandonment or betrayal of trust during a critical moment of need.
35Attachment InjuriesWhen a partner cries out for help and there is no response, the sense of basic trust that is the bedrock upon which the welfare of their bond depends is shattered.
36Therapy based on Attachment Theory Focus on attachment needs & forms of engagement & disengagementPrivileges emotion – the music of the attachment dance.Creates the therapy session as a secure base.Shapes new bonding responses – events.Addresses impasses – attachment injuries.