2The war of ALL against ALL Thomas HobbesThe war of ALL against ALL~Hobbes– 16th Century English Philosopher-What was life like without government?Earliest history, humans lived in unbridled freedom in which no government existed and no person was subject to any superior powerWhat people could take by force …belonged to themNo authority to protect one person from the aggressive actions of another
3WHAT would bring us out of the wilderness? Without Government – would be “continual fear and danger of violent death and life would be solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”Wilderness (State of Nature) – Brute, savage, SELFISHWHAT would bring us out of the wilderness?
4Real examples of Hobbes’ State of Nature? After the disaster of Hurricane KatrinaNumerous reports of people looting stores and pillaging for food after the hurricane had struck (mass confusion and chaos)Even a few cops…People in these instances were not looking out for others or forming alliances.They were intent on finding food, shelter, and anything else necessary for their survival
5John Locke (16th century Philosopher) Discussed a place where people had no governmentAlso called it “state of nature”?Question is : In this state, would people’s NATURAL rights be taken away?
6ALL PERSONS HAVE THESE RIGHTS JUST BECAUSE THEY ARE Natural Rights :Everyone has a right to:LIFE – people want to live and will fight to surviveLIBERTY – people want to be as free as possible to make their own decisionsPROPERTY – people want to own things that help them survive (land, food, tools)ALL PERSONS HAVE THESE RIGHTS JUST BECAUSE THEY AREHUMAN BEINGS (BORN with them)????
7In Locke’s “State of Nature”… No rules, no one in charge, no way for people to have their natural rights protectedLocke believed - Everyone is entitled to protect their life and liberty by any means necessaryEx: If someone tried to kill you, you had the right to do whatever it took to prevent that from happening (Natural Right of Life)
8Example: Using Hobbes’ and Locke’s philosophy…In State of Nature Ms. Kalhoon has cut down a tree and worked all day to cut it up in order to make a house for herself
9Mr. Franklin comes along and makes her give up all of the wood under the threat of physical violence.
10The Question is…?Who should get the wood? Think Hobbes’ and Locke…
11The war of ALL against ALL Hobbes would answerWhoever wins out (strongest)The war of ALL against ALL
12Locke would answer:Since Mrs. Kalhoon worked on that natural resource, she added some value to it and it became her property.If Mr. Franklin just took the wood, it would make Mrs. Kalhoon his slave and that is a violation of her right to liberty.So, in a State of Nature, Mrs. Kalhoon has the right to FIGHT FOR HER CHOPPED WOOD.
13Locke’s view of the disadvantages in a State of Nature Stronger people might try to take away other people’s lives, liberty, or propertyWeaker people might band together and take away the rights of the stronger peoplePeople would be unprotected and insecure
14Both Hobbes and Locke said that Humans overcame their unpleasant conditions by agreeing with one another to create a state (Civil Society)By SOCIAL CONTRACT – people within a given area agreed to give up (voluntarily) to the state as much power as was needed to promote the safety and well-being of all
15Argued that people were naturally wicked and could not be trusted to govern (to make decisions on their own).So, people must agree to living together under common laws and create an ENFORCEMENT MECHANISMTherefore, Hobbes believed that an absolute monarchy - a government that gave all power to a king or queen - was best.Hobbes
16The best government (state) was one that had the great power of a leviathan (or sea monster) and the sovereign (King) was powerful enough to be beyond challengeHobbes felt a country needed anauthority figure to provide direction andleadership.
17Where is the Social Contract if the sovereign would have the right to make any laws he saw fit? ~Hobbes: The only responsibility of the sovereign was to defend the state and keep the peace. There was no direct contract between the sovereign and those who appointed him.**The only contract was the agreement between the people to appoint somebody they would obey.
18Hobbes was not in favor of democracy def: supreme authority rests with the people Isn’t the King a human man, who according to Hobbes, has selfish-interests…what’s going to stop him from carrying out his own selfish agenda?Allowing citizens to vote for government leaders would never work.Why?- People only interested in promoting their own self-interestsFounding Fathers Created Electoral College (afraid of Mob Rule)If Hobbes supported having a strong, absolute monarch and believed that people would only promote their own self-interests…what can we question about this…?
19“voice of the people” Hobbes proposed that… the king Hobbes came up with the phrasewhich meant that one person could be chosen to represent a group with similar views.Hobbes proposed that…A diverse group of representatives presenting the problems of the common person would, hopefully, prevent a king from being cruel and unfair.an individual could be heard in government by authorizing a representative to speak on their behalf.Ever heard the phrase…“voice of the people”However, this "voice" was merely heard and not necessarily listened to - final decisions lay with...the king
20In other words…The people should CONSENT to follow some laws in exchange for protection that these laws would give themCreate a government to rule them and protect their natural rights
21Best form of Government John Locke, in his Two Treatises of Government, begins with the opposite opinion regarding man’s natural state, and concludes that the ideal form of government is democracy.Let’s take a look at a selection from his essay
22Locke WAS in favor of democracy According to Locke, the individual was naturally free and only became a political subject out of free choice.From its very definition, democracy is government by consent.Therefore, it is evident that Locke’s belief in the government by consent forms bedrock for the belief in democracy
25Meaning…Since governments exist by the consent of the people in order to protect the rights of the people and promote the public good, governments that fail to do so can be resisted and replaced with new governments.
26Ex: King Charles I was accused of treason against England by using his power to pursue his personal interest rather than the good of the country. He was beheaded in January 1649.
27Ex: Declaration of Independence justified its revolution through the Social Contract Theory (Locke) arguing King George III and his ministers had violated the contract
28Locke wrote Second Treatise one year after the Glorious Revolution of Justifies the revolutionBlood-less coup which led to the overthrow of King James II in 1688 and the establishment of William and Mary as monarchsAbolished absolutism and established a constitutional monarchy in England in which parliament had basic sovereignty over the king.The Glorious Revolution led to the 1689 English Bill of Rights (later)NO!
29King James II became directly involved in the political battles in England between Catholicism and Protestantism, and between the Divine Right of Kings and the political rights of the Parliament of England.James also created a large standing army and employed Catholics in positions of power within it. To his opponents in Parliament this seemed like a prelude to arbitrary rule, so James prorogued Parliament without gaining Parliament's consent
30An 'Absolute Monarchy' meant the king had the power to do do anything without any constraint by law or parliamentA 'Constitutional Monarchy' meant the king acted as a figurehead whose power was limited by parliamentLocke believed, contrary to claims that God had “made all people naturally subject to a monarch”, that people are “by nature free
31The Glorious Revolution led to a spate of short-lived rebellions in the colonies which can be seen as precursors to the American Revolution.
32*rebellion was not justifiable *destructive and disastrous(state of nature)*it is better to keep the devil you know, rather than trade him for the devil you don’t know ~Hobbes
34Examine an example of Social Contract: Mayflower Compact
35Homework –What does Compact mean?Highlight (a – c)
36BackgroundOn September 6, 1620, the Mayflower departed from England with 102 passengers.Virginia Company got charter (Def: written grant of authority to make laws “for the good and welfare” of the colony) to establish a colony (fishing)The Pilgrims had obtained permission from English authorities to settle in Virginia, whose northern border at the time extended up to what is now New YorkAfter a 65-day ocean journey, the Pilgrims sighted Cape Cod (Provincetown) on November 19, 1620.Who were these “Pilgrims”?Poor or middle class landless individualsContract to Work 7 years GET LAND
37Problem Not the originally contracted land Intended to settle near the mouth of theHudson River BUT dangerous shoals and a nearshipwreck on their attempt to head south, theydecided instead to plant themselves outside the bounds of the Virginia Company patentMany mutinous speeches … boasted that "they came ashore, they would use their own liberty, for none had the power to command them, the patent they had being for Virginia and not New England, which belonged to another Government, with which the Virginia Company had nothing to do".What stopped them?FAILURE!1580s ROANOKE (Lost Colony)1570s Spanish Colony of AJACAN (Chesapeake Bay)
38ALL 41 (adult males) of the ship's 101 passengers What does Compact mean?Signed byALL 41 (adult males) of the ship's 101 passengersWhat did they agree to?The Mayflower Compact was an attempt to establish a temporary, legally-binding form of self-government until such time as the Company could get formal permission from the Council of New England.Social-Contract!
39 Supplement for Intro Notes Lecture 1 Hobbes Locke LockeWhat is a Social Contract and Why Do We Need to Form A Civil Society?Leviathan meaning Best Government?Where is the Social Contract? Democracy – Feelings?Problems with “best government?”How to keep “problem” in check? They must be punished with accordance on the existing laws of the civil societyWhat if PEOPLE violate the Contact?What if the RULER violates the Contact?
40Reminder… Preamble Homework for tomorrow - identify the purposes of government