Presentation on theme: "World History Unit 5 Absolutism to Revolution: 1500-1900."— Presentation transcript:
World History Unit 5 Absolutism to Revolution:
Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, A.D. Section 1 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
BELLRINGER If you had absolute control over the school, what changes would you implement? Create a list of at least 5 changes you would make or 5 things you would do.
BELLRINGER 11/07/13 What are two qualities an absolute Monarch must have? Some of you have claimed our President is an absolute monarch. Explain. If you do not believe this, explain why he does not fit the mold?
Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism Objectives To describe Spanish power under Philip II. To explain weaknesses in the Spanish Empire. To describe the birth of the Netherlands. To explain the origins of absolute monarchy Vocabulary: Philip II, absolute monarch, divine right
Bellringer What are 3 reasons for the decline of the Spanish Empire?
Why Absolutism Europe was experiencing a period of CRISIS Religious Crisis France: Wars of religion Edict of Nantes: Catholicism is OFFICIAL religion of France, but Huguenots (Protestant) were allowed Economic & Social Crisis: Inflation Witchcraft 30 Years War ( ) Disputes all over Germany over Peace of Augsburg Treaty of Westphalia (1648) German States could determine their own religion
SOLUTION TO CRISES!!! ABSOLUTISM: Total Power Divine right of kings Centralization
Quick Introduction… What is an ABSOLUTE MONARCH? –A king or queen who has total power, and seeks to control all aspects of society What gives the king their power? –Divine Right – belief that God gave the king his “right” to be king (God’s Representative) FeudalismRenaissanceGrowth of Cities Growth of Nationalism Need for Central Power Evolution of Absolutism
I. Spain’s Rise to Power In the 1500s Spain gained land, this meant that Spain gained “power and influence.” Spain had an ABSOLUTE RULER, Charles V. What he controlled: –Spain –Spain’s colonies in the New World –Parts of Italy, Netherlands, and Austria –Much of Germany Charles V split his land, and retired to a monastery
HAPSBURG FAMILY TREE
SPAIN King Philip II (42 years)
Phillip II of Spain His dad was Charles V (from the other slide) His dad left him Spain, and many of his other holdings Spain became very rich from their colonies in the New World, this made Phillip very wealthy and powerful. Philip was a defender of Catholicism, (he hated the Muslims and Protestants) so he sent his large naval fleet to England to punish all non-Catholics.
Defeat of the Spanish Armada Who: English vs. Spanish When: 1588 Where : English Channel Details: –130 Spanish Ships attacked the English navy –English Navy outmaneuvered Spanish, and used long range guns on them Results: –Spain was weakened –English Navy became the strongest navy on the Planet
Problems within the Spanish Empire The massive wealth that Spain acquired, led to long- term financial problems. –Inflation – value of money is worth less, because so many people have lots of it. –Tax Problems for the Lower Class, led to the near elimination of Middle Class. –King had to borrow money from other countries, and 3 times he had to declare bankruptcy.
II. Birth of the Netherlands The Dutch Revolt Phillip had to raise an army to keep his subjects under control. Many Dutch were Calvinist (Spain was Catholic). The Dutch had a prosperous Middle Class Phillip raised taxes in the Netherlands and tried to end Protestantism.
Dutch Revolt (cont’d) 1566 angry protestant mobs swept through Catholic Churches Phillip had 1500 protestants killed they claimed their independence and became the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
Independent Dutch Prosper United Provinces of the Netherlands practiced religious toleration. They were a Republic (each province had an elected governor) Stable gov’t led to economic growth (large fleet allowed for lots of trading!)
Dutch Art During 1600s, the Netherlands became what Florence had been in the 1400s (remember the Renaissance?) –The best banks and artists –Rembrandt van Rijn was the best. Portraits of wealthy merchants Group portraits Sharp contrast of light and dark, showed individuality of each person
Absolutism Dominates Europe Why did monarchs gain power? 1.Decline of feudalism 2.Rise of cities 3.Merchants supported monarchs 4.Crises Religious and territorial conflicts Monarchs tried to regulate this by gaining more power
Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism Objectives To describe Spanish power under Philip II. Wealthiest and most powerful; Defender of the Faith; Golden Age To explain weaknesses in the Spanish Empire. Inflation, unequal taxes, out-flowing wealth, Dutch Revolt To describe the birth of the Netherlands. William of Orange, religious toleration, commerce and banking, art To explain the origins of absolute monarchy. Retain all power, divine right, rise from centralization and crises Vocabulary: Philip II, absolute monarch, divine right
Assessment 1) He split his empire and retired to a monastery 2) he inherited his father’s empire in Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and New World 3) title given to those who defend Catholicism 5) They defeated the Spanish Armada in ) They paid the majority of taxes in Spain 8) These guilds kept Spain from becoming capitalistic 9) He defeated Spain in the Dutch Revolt 10) The two reasons that the United Provinces of the Netherlands were unique 1) Charles V 2) Philip II 3) Defender of the Faith 5) English 7) peasants 8) merchants 9) William of Orange 10) religious toleration and they formed a republic
Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, A.D. Section 2 France’s Ultimate Monarch
Objectives To describe religious and political conflicts in France. To explain Louis XIV’s policies. To characterize the style of the French royal court. To identify causes and effects of the French wars. Vocabulary: Edict of Nantes, Cardinal Richelieu, skepticism, Louis XIV, intendant, Jean Baptiste Colbert, War of the Spanish Succession
Religious Wars Create a Crisis King Henry II & Catherine de Medicis –1559: Catherine real power –1572: St. Bartholomew’s Day Henry of Navarre –Protestant Prince (Huguenot) –inherits the throne Henry IV 1st Bourbon king –Catholic conversion –Edict of Nantes religious toleration Louis XIII –Cardinal Richelieu de facto ruler increased Bourbon power Huguenots and nobles –skepticism nothing can be known for certain Michel de Montaigne
Religious Wars and Power Struggles FRANCE
Henry of Navarre(1553 –1610) –Became Henry IV ( 1589 to 1610) the first king of the Bourbon dynasty –Catholics opposed Henry, why? So what did he do? –With the Edict of Nantes Henry allows the Huguenots (French Protestants) to live and worship in France –Devoted to rebuilding France and restoring the monarchy –How does Henry die? Declaration of religious tolerance in France
LOUIS XIII - (1601 –1643) King of France – Louis XIII –King –WEAK –1624 Louis XIII’s minister (and leader of the Catholic Church in France) essentially rules – Cardinal Richelieu France…problem? –He hated the Huguenot Strengthened his own power by weakening the nobles influence (made them take down their fortified castles)strengthened Middle Class
(1618–1648) THIRTY YEARS WAR France enters the 30 years war –Richelieu wanted to make the strongest nation in Europe so tried to take power from the Hapsburg Empire (SPAIN) Involved most countries in Europe and one of the longest and most destructive wars in European History. Over Religion – Rivalry-
The efforts of Louis XIII and Richelieu to strengthen the French Monarchy paved the way for the most powerful ruler in FRENCH history LOUIS XIV
1. Describe Versailles 2. Why does Louis XIV dislike nobility? 3. Explain the Edict of NantesExplain the Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV said “I am the state”- explain what he meant by this statement Compare Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin. What is one issue/view they have in common?
Louis XIV Rules Absolutely Louis XIV – NICKNAME – SUN KING –most powerful king –Longest Reign of any monarch crown at age 5 –Cardinal Mazarin Louis’ minister Mazarin’s “rule” caused the nobles to revolt. ( increased taxes and strengthened central govt) Louis hated this and made up his mind that he would become so powerful that the nobles would NEVER rise against him. L ‘etat c’est moi! (I am the State) Divine Rights of Kings
LOUIS REIGN Mazarin dies and Louis takes control Louis’ ACTIONS Weakened the nobility by excluding them from his councils Increased power of govt agents like tax collectors and justice people 1685-canceled the Edict Of Nantes - as a result 1000’s of Huguenot artists and buisness people fled France -Robbed France of many skilled workers EXPANDED THE ECONOMY –Jean Baptist Colbert – Minister of Finance used Mercantilism to build France’s bank accounts –Focused on making money in the New World (fur trade) –Wanted France to be self sufficient (no imports) –Manufactured everything in France and placed high tariffs on imports
Versailles 1. King’s home 2. location of central government -plan was to keep nobles busy with court life and out of state business
Louis Fights Disastrous Wars France in 1660 –largest population & army –Wanted to expand France’s borders Spanish Netherlands – 1667 –Gained 12 towns Dutch Netherlands –‘flooded countryside League of Augsburg –balance of power alliance –Sweden, Spain, England –Joined together against France
War of Spanish Succession –France and Spain were on the verge of unification –1700 Charles II died –Left his inheritance to Louis’s grandson Phillip of Anjou –Other countries of Europe were scared that this would be too much power for the Bourbon Kings. –Result: Treaty of Utrecht –Spain and France were beaten, and the thrones were not permitted to be unified.
Louis 14: Legacy & Death Positives that Louis Brought Strengthened France in Art & Literature Strengthened French Military and influence in Europe Strengthened the French Colonies in the New World Negatives that Louis Brought Constant Warfare Lots of debts (palace and fighting) High Taxes for the people Set the stage for the French Revolution Louis died in his bed in The French people celebrated when they heard the news.
France’s Ultimate Monarch Objectives To describe religious and political conflicts in France. Protestants vs. Catholics civil wars; Henry IV religious tolerance; Cardinal Richelieu’s rise; skepticism embraced To explain Louis XIV’s policies. Cardinal Mazarin raises taxes / strengthens central govt.; Louis is France’s most powerful king; Jean Baptiste Colbert’s economy To characterize the style of the French royal court. Luxury; nobles waiting game; Versailles and patronage To identify causes and effects of the French wars. French expansion; European anti-French alliance; weakening Vocabulary: Edict of Nantes, Cardinal Richelieu, skepticism, Louis XIV, intendant, Jean Baptiste Colbert, War of the Spanish Succession
Assessment 1) This Protestant prince converted to Catholicism after gaining French throne 2) Henry was the 1st king of this dynasty 3) 1598 edict called for religious toleration 4) he was the real power behind the throne of Louis XIII 5) ‘nothing can be known for certain’ 6) France’s most powerful ruler ever 7) they were tax and justice agents 8) this economic minister advocated mercantilist policies to King Louis XIV 9) the fabulous palace built by Louis XIV 10) this 1689 alliance in Europe was designed maintain a balance of power 1) Henry IV (of Navarre) 2) Bourbon 3) Edict of Nantes 4) Cardinal Richelieu 5) skepticism 6) Louis XIV 7) intendants 8) Jean Baptiste Colbert 9) Versailles 10) League of Augsburg
Describe how Louis XIV is the epitome of an absolute Monarch. What was the War of Spanish Succession?
IV. The 30 Years War When: 1618 – 1648 Where: HRE – Germanic lands Who: Protestants (with Lutheran help) and Catholics Details: Conflict over religion, territory, and for power among European ruling families Results: –Hurt Germany most (lost 4 million people) –Treaty: Peace of WestphaliaTreaty: Peace of Westphalia –This was the last religious war in Europe –Europe became a group independent countries, rather than a Catholic Empire
Central Powers collide Peace of Westphalia - - Divided the Holy Roman Empire into more than 300 separate states Hapsburgs still ruled Austria and Bohemia - Ended hopes of absolute monarchy over all of Germany –Each territory decide religion –Strengthened France
The 7 Years War When: Where: Europe, India, North America Who: England vs. France (and their allies) Why: Frederick of Prussia attacked Saxony-an ally of Austria and everyone went to war. Results: England gained the most They took all of France’s holding in the New World England gained trading domination in India
V. Formation of European Countries Western Europe Serfs gained independence and moved to cities to form the middle class Strong Empires Strong Leaders Central Europe Serfs were restricted from leaving their farming lifestyles, stuck in the lower class Weak Empires Weak Leaders Central European Countries developed slowly. Western European countries developed quickly.
Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, A.D. Section 4 Russian Czars Increase Power
Russian Czar’s Increase Power Objectives To explain how Ivan III and later Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian state. To characterize differences between Russia and western Europe and the emerging role of Peter the Great. To describe Peter’s reforms and their impact on Russia. Vocabulary: Ivan the Terrible, boyars, Peter the Great, westernization
From Ivan to the Romanovs Russia emerged as a “player” by the end of the 1600’s Ivan IV – (only 3) –“good” – –czar –“terrible” – 1560 –boyars landowning nobles –traitors Anastasia Time of Troubles ( ) –battle for throne Boyars (old nobility) –Michael Romanov –began the Romanov dynasty – 1613 In your notes list 5 interesting facts about the govt in Russia
Details about killing his son In 1581, Ivan beat his pregnant daughter-in-law for wearing immodest clothing, causing a miscarriage. His son, also named Ivan, upon learning of this, engaged in a heated argument with his father, which resulted in Ivan striking his son in the head with his pointed staff, causing his son's (accidental) death. This event is depicted in the famous painting by Ilya Repin, Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan on Friday, November 16, 1581 better known as Ivan the Terrible killing his son1581Ilya Repin
I am your god as God is mine. My throne is surrounded by archangels as is the throne of God
Peter the Great Takes the Throne Peter the Great – –Ascended to the throne at age 10 –1696- Ruled Russia alone Strengthened the power of the czar (that is added to his ABSOLUTE POWER) Russia was very backwards, Peter was determined to change this.
Peter’s Reforms In order to make “Westernize” Russia, Peter had to strengthen is ABSOLUTE POWER. Here’s what he did: –Controlled the Russian Church –Reduced the power of the Upper Class, and created a Middle Class –Enlarged the Russian Army (raised taxes to pay them)
Peter’s Westernization of Russia The Westernization ProcessWesternization –Introduced Potatoes as a part of their diet –Started a newspaper –Allowed women to attend social gatherings –Had the Nobles start wearing Western Fashions –Education Focus: Navigation, Arts, and Sciences Results of Peter’s Actions: Russia became modernized, and better off as a result of his efforts. List 5 facts about westernization
Russian Expansion - Peter Established a seaport to promote education and growth and easier to trade with West – ST. PETERSBERG By his death in 1725 – Russia was a force to be reckoned with in Europe
Russian Czars Increase Power Objectives To explain how Ivan III and later Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian state. Czars strengthen Russian state; reduce power of boyars; Ivan the ‘good’ becomes Ivan the ‘terrible’ To characterize differences between Russia and western Europe and the emerging role of Peter the Great Peter the Great takes throne; Russia is land of nobles and serfs, isolated and backwards; Peter visits and studies western Europe To describe Peter’s reforms and their impact on Russia. Peter westernizes Russia; religion under state control; limits power of nobles; modernizes army; Baltic Sea seaport at St. Petersburg Vocabulary: Ivan the Terrible, boyars, Peter the Great, westernization
Assessment 1) Who founded the Russian Empire in ) He liberated Russia from the Mongols 3) He was the 1 st ruler to be called ‘czar’ 4) Ivan got this nickname because of his treatment of nobles after his wife died 5) Russian landowning nobles 6) He emerged out of the ‘Time of Troubles’ in 1613 as the new Russian ruler 7) These people were ‘attached’ to the land 8) He tries to ‘westernize’ Russia 9) How did Peter pay for his new ‘westernized’ army 10) This city was the new capital and a Russian “window to the west” 1) Ivan III 2) Ivan III 3) Ivan IV 4) Terrible 5) boyars 6) Michael Romanov 7) serfs 8) Peter the Great 9)heavy taxes 10) St. Petersburg
Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, A.D. Section 5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
Objectives To identify conflicts between English rulers and Parliament. To explain the causes and results of the English Civil War. To describe the Restoration and Glorious Revolution. To explain political changes under William and Mary. Vocabulary: Charles I, English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, Restoration, habeas corpus, Glorious Revolution, constitutional monarchy, cabinet
Monarchs Defy Parliament First, you need to understand that a MONARCHY is a form of ABSOLUTISM. The Monarchs (Kings and Queens) felt that they were above the law (i.e. – Parliament) –Parliament – English version of Congress First, you need to understand that a MONARCHY is a form of ABSOLUTISM. The Monarchs (Kings and Queens) felt that they were above the law (i.e. – Parliament) –Parliament – English version of Congress
Monarchs vs. Parliament Queen Elizabeth – she had problems with the parliament regarding money James I – he had problems with the parliament regarding religion Charles I – fired the Parliament – just got rid of it!
Charles I ( ) vs. Parliament Charles fired Parliament Then he needed them back to get him some money – –He “re-hired” them. The only way that Parliament would give him money is if he signed the Petition of Right. –No false imprisonment –No taxes w/o Parliament’s consent –No housing of soldiers in homes –No martial (absolute) law in peace time Charles signed it – then he IGNORED it. Parliament then withheld money – He fired them again… Might have ruled indefinitely with out parliament except his religious policies against Scotland-needed money for war Wanted England to have one religion
1. Describe the good and the bad of Louis XIV 2. Choose your favorite monarch and explain how they displayed absolute power
English Civil War English Civil War –Parliament limit on king’s power Charles I orders arrests –Royalists/Cavaliers (kings supporters vs. Roundheads (Parliament supporters ) –Oliver Cromwell Puritan Roundhead leader Charles I captured by 1647 –lost English Civil War –public execution
OLIVER CROMWELL’S RULE 1649 – England officially became a PURITAN state –Formed a military state –Very strict Defeated the Irish Catholics disbanded Parliament and ruled as “Lord Protector” Died in 1658 Charles II –took the throne in 1680 – called the RESTORATION period Anglican church A document ordering prisoners be brought before a judge to specify the charges
Glorious Revolution –1685 Charles II died with NO heir –His brother James II took over (but he was catholic!) He soon offended Parliament and voted some Catholic friends into high office (against the law) Parliament protested, so he fired them His wife then had a son and the people were scared that a long line of Catholics would rule. Glorious Revolution William and Mary ( daughter of James II) Prince of the Netherlands Protestants Parliamentary invite -bloodless overthrow of James II William as new English king CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY : There is a monarch in place, however they are limited in their power Glorious Revolution William and Mary ( daughter of James II) Prince of the Netherlands Protestants Parliamentary invite -bloodless overthrow of James II William as new English king CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY : There is a monarch in place, however they are limited in their power
Limit on Monarch’s power ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS 1689 No suspending Parliament’s laws No levying taxes without consent Freedom of speech for Parliament Citizens can petition the king about grievances
Stuart Family Tree
Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Objectives To identify conflicts between English rulers and Parliament. English kings clash w/ Parliament over money and power; Charles I dissolves Parliament To explain the causes and results of the English Civil War. Charles I recalls Parliament; Charles I supporters vs. opponents in Civil War; Puritans win civil war; Charles I executed To describe the Restoration and Glorious Revolution. Charles II as king; James II deposed; William and Mary take power To explain political changes under William and Mary. Constitutional monarchy; Bill of Rights; cabinet as center of power Vocabulary: Charles I, English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, Restoration, habeas corpus, Glorious Revolution, constitutional monarchy, cabinet
Assessment 1) This Scottish family followed the Tudors as the ruling dynasty of England in ) He was the founder of the dynasty in # 1 3) James I believed in this type of government 4) This English king lost his head in ) This event between brought Puritans into power in England 6) These two groups opposed each other in the English Civil War 7) This Puritan leader became a military dictator in ) He ruled following the 1660 Restoration 9) This calls for a speedy trial and no jailing of political opponents 10) William and Mary ascend the English thrown in this 1689 bloodless rebellion 1) Stuarts 2) James I 3) absolute monarchy 4) Charles I 5) English Civil War 6) Royalists and Roundheads 7) Oliver Cromwell 8) Charles II 9) habeas corpus 10) Glorious Revolution