Presentation on theme: "Unit 5 Absolutism to Revolution:"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 5 Absolutism to Revolution: 1500-1900 World HistoryUnit 5Absolutism to Revolution:
2Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800 A.D. Section 1Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism
3BELLRINGERIf you had absolute control over the school, what changes would you implement?Create a list of at least 5 changes you would make or 5 things you would do.
4BELLRINGER 11/07/13What are two qualities an absolute Monarch must have?Some of you have claimed our President is an absolute monarch. Explain. If you do not believe this, explain why he does not fit the mold?
5Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism ObjectivesTo describe Spanish power under Philip II.To explain weaknesses in the Spanish Empire.To describe the birth of the Netherlands.To explain the origins of absolute monarchyVocabulary: Philip II, absolute monarch, divine right
6BellringerWhat are 3 reasons for the decline of the Spanish Empire?
7Why Absolutism Europe was experiencing a period of CRISIS Religious CrisisFrance: Wars of religionEdict of Nantes: Catholicism is OFFICIAL religion of France, but Huguenots (Protestant) were allowedEconomic & Social Crisis:InflationWitchcraft30 Years War ( )Disputes all over Germany over Peace of AugsburgTreaty of Westphalia (1648)German States could determine their own religion
8SOLUTION TO CRISES!!! ABSOLUTISM: Total Power Divine right of kings Centralization
9Evolution of Absolutism Quick Introduction…What is an ABSOLUTE MONARCH?A king or queen who has total power, and seeks to control all aspects of societyWhat gives the king their power?Divine Right – belief that God gave the king his “right” to be king (God’s Representative)FeudalismRenaissanceGrowth of CitiesGrowth of NationalismNeed for Central PowerEvolution of Absolutism
10I. Spain’s Rise to PowerIn the 1500s Spain gained land, this meant that Spain gained “power and influence.”Spain had an ABSOLUTE RULER, Charles V.What he controlled:SpainSpain’s colonies in the New WorldParts of Italy, Netherlands, and AustriaMuch of GermanyCharles V split his land, and retired to a monastery
13Phillip II of Spain His dad was Charles V (from the other slide) His dad left him Spain, and many of his other holdingsSpain became very rich from their colonies in the New World, this made Phillip very wealthy and powerful.Philip was a defender of Catholicism, (he hated the Muslims and Protestants) so he sent his large naval fleet to England to punish all non-Catholics.
14Defeat of the Spanish Armada Who: English vs. SpanishWhen: 1588Where : English ChannelDetails:130 Spanish Ships attacked the English navyEnglish Navy outmaneuvered Spanish, and used long range guns on themResults:Spain was weakenedEnglish Navy became the strongest navy on the Planet
15Problems within the Spanish Empire The massive wealth that Spain acquired, led to long-term financial problems.Inflation – value of money is worth less, because so many people have lots of it.Tax Problems for the Lower Class, led to the near elimination of Middle Class.King had to borrow money from other countries, and 3 times he had to declare bankruptcy.
16II. Birth of the Netherlands The Dutch Revolt Phillip had to raise an army to keep his subjects under control.Many Dutch were Calvinist (Spain was Catholic).The Dutch had a prosperous Middle ClassPhillip raised taxes in the Netherlands and tried to end Protestantism.
17Dutch Revolt (cont’d)1566 angry protestant mobs swept through Catholic Churches.1568 Phillip had 1500 protestants killed.1579 they claimed their independence and became the United Provinces of the Netherlands.
18Independent Dutch Prosper United Provinces of the Netherlands practiced religious toleration.They were a Republic (each province had an elected governor)Stable gov’t led to economic growth (large fleet allowed for lots of trading!)
19Dutch ArtDuring 1600s, the Netherlands became what Florence had been in the 1400s (remember the Renaissance?)The best banks and artistsRembrandt van Rijn was the best.Portraits of wealthy merchantsGroup portraitsSharp contrast of light and dark, showed individuality of each person
21Absolutism Dominates Europe Why did monarchs gain power?Decline of feudalismRise of citiesMerchants supported monarchsCrisesReligious and territorial conflictsMonarchs tried to regulate this by gaining more power
22Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism ObjectivesTo describe Spanish power under Philip II.Wealthiest and most powerful; Defender of the Faith; Golden AgeTo explain weaknesses in the Spanish Empire.Inflation, unequal taxes, out-flowing wealth, Dutch RevoltTo describe the birth of the Netherlands.William of Orange, religious toleration, commerce and banking, artTo explain the origins of absolute monarchy.Retain all power, divine right, rise from centralization and crisesVocabulary: Philip II, absolute monarch, divine right
23Assessment 1) He split his empire and retired to a monastery 2) he inherited his father’s empire in Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and New World3) title given to those who defend Catholicism5) They defeated the Spanish Armada in 15886) They paid the majority of taxes in Spain8) These guilds kept Spain from becoming capitalistic9) He defeated Spain in the Dutch Revolt10) The two reasons that the United Provinces of the Netherlands were unique1) Charles V2) Philip II3) Defender of the Faith5) English7) peasants8) merchants9) William of Orange10) religious toleration and they formed a republic
25Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800 A.D. Section 2France’s Ultimate Monarch
26France’s Ultimate Monarch ObjectivesTo describe religious and political conflicts in France.To explain Louis XIV’s policies.To characterize the style of the French royal court.To identify causes and effects of the French wars.Vocabulary: Edict of Nantes, Cardinal Richelieu, skepticism, Louis XIV, intendant, Jean Baptiste Colbert, War of the Spanish Succession
27Religious Wars Create a Crisis King Henry II & Catherine de Medicis1559: Catherine real power1572: St. Bartholomew’s DayHenry of NavarreProtestant Prince (Huguenot)inherits the throneHenry IV1st Bourbon kingCatholic conversionEdict of Nantesreligious tolerationLouis XIIICardinal Richelieude facto rulerincreased Bourbon powerHuguenots and noblesskepticismnothing can be known for certainMichel de Montaigne
29Henry of Navarre(1553 –1610)Became Henry IV (1589 to 1610) the first king of the Bourbon dynastyCatholics opposed Henry, why? So what did he do?With the Edict of Nantes Henry allows the Huguenots (French Protestants) to live and worship in FranceDevoted to rebuilding France and restoring the monarchyHow does Henry die?Declaration of religious tolerance in France
30LOUIS XIII - (1601 –1643) King of France – 1610-1643 WEAK1624 Louis XIII’s minister (and leader of the Catholic Church in France) essentially rules – Cardinal Richelieu France…problem?He hated the Huguenot Strengthened his own power by weakening the nobles influence (made them take down their fortified castles)strengthened Middle Class
31(1618–1648) THIRTY YEARS WARFrance enters the 30 years war –Richelieu wanted to make the strongest nation in Europe so tried to take power from the Hapsburg Empire (SPAIN)Involved most countries in Europe and one of the longest and most destructive wars in European History.Over Religion – Rivalry-
32The efforts of Louis XIII and Richelieu to strengthen the French Monarchy paved the way for the most powerful ruler in FRENCH historyLOUIS XIV
331. Describe Versailles2. Why does Louis XIV dislike nobility?3. Explain the Edict of Nantes
34Louis XIV said “I am the state”- explain what he meant by this statement Compare Cardinal Richelieu and Cardinal Mazarin. What is one issue/view they have in common?
35Louis XIV Rules Absolutely -NICKNAME – SUN KINGmost powerful kingLongest Reign of any monarchcrown at age 5Cardinal MazarinLouis’ ministerMazarin’s “rule” caused the nobles to revolt. (increased taxes and strengthened central govt) Louis hated this and made up his mind that he would become so powerful that the nobles would NEVER rise against him.L ‘etat c’est moi! (I am the State)Divine Rights of Kings
36LOUIS REIGN -1661 Mazarin dies and Louis takes control Louis’ ACTIONSWeakened the nobility by excluding them from his councilsIncreased power of govt agents like tax collectors and justice people1685-canceled the EdictOf Nantes - as a result 1000’s of Huguenot artists and buisness people fled France-Robbed France of many skilled workersEXPANDED THE ECONOMYJean Baptist Colbert – Minister of Finance used Mercantilism to build France’s bank accountsFocused on making money in the New World (fur trade)Wanted France to be self sufficient (no imports)Manufactured everything in France and placed high tariffs on imports
37Versailles 1. King’s home 2. location of central government -plan was to keep nobles busy with court life and out of state business
40Louis Fights Disastrous Wars France in 1660largest population & armyWanted to expand France’s bordersSpanish Netherlands – 1667Gained 12 townsDutch Netherlands‘flooded countrysideLeague of Augsburgbalance of power allianceSweden, Spain, EnglandJoined together against France
41War of Spanish Succession France and Spain were on the verge of unification1700 Charles II diedLeft his inheritance to Louis’s grandson Phillip of AnjouOther countries of Europe were scared that this would be too much power for the Bourbon Kings.Result: Treaty of UtrechtSpain and France were beaten, and the thrones were not permitted to be unified.
42Positives that Louis Brought Louis 14: Legacy & DeathPositives that Louis BroughtStrengthened France in Art & LiteratureStrengthened French Military and influence in EuropeStrengthened the French Colonies in the New WorldNegatives that Louis BroughtConstant WarfareLots of debts (palace and fighting)High Taxes for the peopleSet the stage for the French RevolutionLouis died in his bed in The French people celebrated when they heard the news.
43France’s Ultimate Monarch ObjectivesTo describe religious and political conflicts in France.Protestants vs. Catholics civil wars; Henry IV religious tolerance; Cardinal Richelieu’s rise; skepticism embracedTo explain Louis XIV’s policies.Cardinal Mazarin raises taxes / strengthens central govt.; Louis is France’s most powerful king; Jean Baptiste Colbert’s economyTo characterize the style of the French royal court.Luxury; nobles waiting game; Versailles and patronageTo identify causes and effects of the French wars.French expansion; European anti-French alliance; weakeningVocabulary: Edict of Nantes, Cardinal Richelieu, skepticism, Louis XIV, intendant, Jean Baptiste Colbert, War of the Spanish Succession
44Assessment1) This Protestant prince converted to Catholicism after gaining French throne2) Henry was the 1st king of this dynasty3) edict called for religious toleration4) he was the real power behind the throne of Louis XIII5) ‘nothing can be known for certain’6) France’s most powerful ruler ever7) they were tax and justice agents8) this economic minister advocated mercantilist policies to King Louis XIV9) the fabulous palace built by Louis XIV10) this 1689 alliance in Europe was designed maintain a balance of power1) Henry IV (of Navarre)2) Bourbon3) Edict of Nantes4) Cardinal Richelieu5) skepticism6) Louis XIV7) intendants8) Jean Baptiste Colbert9) Versailles10) League of Augsburg
45Describe how Louis XIV is the epitome of an absolute Monarch. What was the War of Spanish Succession?
46IV. The 30 Years War When: 1618 – 1648 Where: HRE – Germanic lands Who: Protestants (with Lutheran help) and CatholicsDetails: Conflict over religion, territory, and for power among European ruling familiesResults:Hurt Germany most (lost 4 million people)Treaty: Peace of WestphaliaThis was the last religious war in EuropeEurope became a group independent countries, rather than a Catholic Empire
47Central Powers collide Peace of Westphalia- - Divided the Holy Roman Empire into more than 300 separate statesHapsburgs still ruled Austria and Bohemia- Ended hopes of absolute monarchy over all of GermanyEach territory decide religionStrengthened France
48The 7 Years War When: 1756 - 1763 Where: Europe, India, North America Who: England vs. France (and their allies)Why: Frederick of Prussia attacked Saxony-an ally of Austria and everyone went to war.Results: England gained the mostThey took all of France’s holding in the New WorldEngland gained trading domination in India
49V. Formation of European Countries Central European Countries developed slowly. Western European countries developed quickly.Western EuropeSerfs gained independence and moved to cities to form the middle classStrong EmpiresStrong LeadersCentral EuropeSerfs were restricted from leaving their farming lifestyles, stuck in the lower classWeak EmpiresWeak Leaders
50Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800 A.D. Section 4Russian Czars Increase Power
51Russian Czar’s Increase Power ObjectivesTo explain how Ivan III and later Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian state.To characterize differences between Russia and western Europe and the emerging role of Peter the Great.To describe Peter’s reforms and their impact on Russia.Vocabulary: Ivan the Terrible, boyars, Peter the Great, westernization
52From Ivan to the Romanovs Russia emerged as a “player” by the end of the 1600’sIvan IV – (only 3)“good” –czar“terrible” – 1560boyarslandowning noblestraitorsAnastasiaTime of Troubles ( )battle for throneBoyars (old nobility)Michael Romanov –began the Romanov dynasty – 1613In your notes list 5 interesting facts about the govt in Russia
53Details about killing his son In 1581, Ivan beat his pregnant daughter-in-law for wearing immodest clothing, causing a miscarriage. His son, also named Ivan, upon learning of this, engaged in a heated argument with his father, which resulted in Ivan striking his son in the head with his pointed staff, causing his son's (accidental) death. This event is depicted in the famous painting by Ilya Repin, Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan on Friday, November 16, 1581 better known as Ivan the Terrible killing his son
54I am your god as God is mine I am your god as God is mine. My throne is surrounded by archangels as is the throne of God
55Peter the Great Takes the Throne Ascended to the throne at age 101696- Ruled Russia aloneStrengthened the power of the czar (that is added to his ABSOLUTE POWER)Russia was very backwards, Peter was determined to change this.
56Peter’s ReformsIn order to make “Westernize” Russia, Peter had to strengthen is ABSOLUTE POWER. Here’s what he did:Controlled the Russian ChurchReduced the power of the Upper Class, and created a Middle ClassEnlarged the Russian Army (raised taxes to pay them)
57Peter’s Westernization of Russia The Westernization ProcessIntroduced Potatoes as a part of their dietStarted a newspaperAllowed women to attend social gatheringsHad the Nobles start wearing Western FashionsEducation Focus: Navigation, Arts, and SciencesList 5 facts about westernizationResults of Peter’s Actions: Russia became modernized, and better off as a result of his efforts.
58Russian Expansion - Peter Established a seaport to promote education and growth and easier to trade with West – ST. PETERSBERGBy his death in 1725 – Russia was a force to be reckoned with in Europe
59Russian Czars Increase Power ObjectivesTo explain how Ivan III and later Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian state.Czars strengthen Russian state; reduce power of boyars; Ivan the ‘good’ becomes Ivan the ‘terrible’To characterize differences between Russia and western Europe and the emerging role of Peter the Great.1696 Peter the Great takes throne; Russia is land of nobles and serfs, isolated and backwards; Peter visits and studies western EuropeTo describe Peter’s reforms and their impact on Russia.Peter westernizes Russia; religion under state control; limits power of nobles; modernizes army; Baltic Sea seaport at St. PetersburgVocabulary: Ivan the Terrible, boyars, Peter the Great, westernization
60Assessment 1) Who founded the Russian Empire in 1462 2) He liberated Russia from the Mongols3) He was the 1st ruler to be called ‘czar’4) Ivan got this nickname because of his treatment of nobles after his wife died5) Russian landowning nobles6) He emerged out of the ‘Time of Troubles’ in 1613 as the new Russian ruler7) These people were ‘attached’ to the land8) He tries to ‘westernize’ Russia9) How did Peter pay for his new ‘westernized’ army10) This city was the new capital and a Russian “window to the west”1) Ivan III2) Ivan III3) Ivan IV4) Terrible5) boyars6) Michael Romanov7) serfs8) Peter the Greatheavy taxes10) St. Petersburg
61Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, 1500-1800 A.D. Section 5Parliament Limits the English Monarchy
63Parliament Limits the English Monarchy ObjectivesTo identify conflicts between English rulers and Parliament.To explain the causes and results of the English Civil War.To describe the Restoration and Glorious Revolution.To explain political changes under William and Mary.Vocabulary: Charles I, English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, Restoration, habeas corpus, Glorious Revolution, constitutional monarchy, cabinet
64Monarchs Defy Parliament First, you need to understand that a MONARCHY is a form of ABSOLUTISM.The Monarchs (Kings and Queens) felt that they were above the law (i.e. – Parliament)Parliament – English version of Congress
65Monarchs vs. Parliament Queen Elizabeth – she had problems with the parliament regarding moneyJames I – he had problems with the parliament regarding religionCharles I – fired the Parliament – just got rid of it!
66Charles I (1625-1649) vs. Parliament Charles fired ParliamentThen he needed them back to get him some money –He “re-hired” them.The only way that Parliament would give him money is if he signed the Petition of Right.No false imprisonmentNo taxes w/o Parliament’s consentNo housing of soldiers in homesNo martial (absolute) law in peace timeCharles signed it – then he IGNORED it.Parliament then withheld money – He fired them again…Might have ruled indefinitely with out parliament except his religious policies against Scotland-needed money for warWanted England to have one religion
671. Describe the good and the bad of Louis XIV 2. Choose your favorite monarch and explain how they displayed absolute power
68English Civil War English Civil War - 1642-1646 Parliament limit on king’s powerCharles I orders arrestsRoyalists/Cavaliers (kings supporters vs. Roundheads (Parliament supporters )Oliver CromwellPuritan Roundhead leaderCharles I captured by 1647lost English Civil Warpublic execution
69OLIVER CROMWELL’S RULE 1649 – England officially became a PURITAN stateFormed a military stateVery strictDefeated the Irish Catholics1653- disbanded Parliament and ruled as “Lord Protector”Died in 1658Charles II –took the throne in 1680 – called the RESTORATION periodAnglican churchA document ordering prisoners be brought before a judge to specify the charges
70Glorious Revolution 1685 Charles II died with NO heir His brother James II took over (but he was catholic!)He soon offended Parliament and voted some Catholic friends into high office (against the law)Parliament protested, so he fired themHis wife then had a son and the people were scared that a long line of Catholics would rule.Glorious RevolutionWilliam and Mary ( daughter of James II)Prince of the NetherlandsProtestantsParliamentary invite-bloodless overthrow of James IIWilliam as new English kingCONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY :There is a monarch in place,however they are limited intheir power
71Limit on Monarch’s power ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS 1689No suspending Parliament’s lawsNo levying taxes without consentFreedom of speech for ParliamentCitizens can petition the king about grievances
73Parliament Limits the English Monarchy ObjectivesTo identify conflicts between English rulers and Parliament.English kings clash w/ Parliament over money and power; Charles I dissolves ParliamentTo explain the causes and results of the English Civil War.Charles I recalls Parliament; Charles I supporters vs. opponents in Civil War; Puritans win civil war; Charles I executedTo describe the Restoration and Glorious Revolution.Charles II as king; James II deposed; William and Mary take powerTo explain political changes under William and Mary.Constitutional monarchy; Bill of Rights; cabinet as center of powerVocabulary: Charles I, English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, Restoration, habeas corpus, Glorious Revolution, constitutional monarchy, cabinet
74Assessment1) This Scottish family followed the Tudors as the ruling dynasty of England in 16032) He was the founder of the dynasty in # 13) James I believed in this type of government4) This English king lost his head in 16495) This event between brought Puritans into power in England6) These two groups opposed each other in the English Civil War7) This Puritan leader became a military dictator in 16498) He ruled following the 1660 Restoration9) This calls for a speedy trial and no jailing of political opponents10) William and Mary ascend the English thrown in this 1689 bloodless rebellion1) Stuarts2) James I3) absolute monarchy4) Charles I5) English Civil War6) Royalists and Roundheads7) Oliver Cromwell8) Charles II9) habeas corpus10) Glorious Revolution