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Chapter 3: The First Century of Settlement in the Colonial North Preview: “Europe’s religious rivalries shaped seventeenth-century colonies along America’s.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3: The First Century of Settlement in the Colonial North Preview: “Europe’s religious rivalries shaped seventeenth-century colonies along America’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3: The First Century of Settlement in the Colonial North Preview: “Europe’s religious rivalries shaped seventeenth-century colonies along America’s northern rim: the Protestant Reformation stamped English Puritan settlements from Maine to Long Island, and the Catholic Counter- Reformation encouraged the less numerous settlers of French Canada. New England’s stable societies, with their strong family bonds and growing tradition of self-government, contrasted with the more prosperous and ethnically diverse colonies of the mid-Atlantic.” The Highlights: The Founding of New England New England Communities The Mid-Atlantic Colonies Adjustment to Empire

2 Europe in the New World

3 Breaking Away Rapid social change in seventeenth- century England Rapid social change in seventeenth- century England English population _______ English population _______ Different motives for migration Different motives for migration religious versus economic religious versus economic personal: to escape bad marriages, jail terms, or lifelong poverty personal: to escape bad marriages, jail terms, or lifelong poverty

4 The Stuart Monarchs

5 Four Colonial Subcultures The Chesapeake The Chesapeake _______ __________ _______ __________ Middle Colonies Middle Colonies The Carolinas The Carolinas

6 The Founding of New England The Puritan Movement Puritans consisted of Presbyterian and Congregationalist believers Puritans, like all _______ emphasized _____________ Puritan calls for reform lead to their separatist band sailing for America 1620: “Pilgrims” establish ___________ Colony

7 Reforming England in America Pilgrims Pilgrims ____________ who refused to worship in the Church of England, fled ____________ who refused to worship in the Church of England, fled Escape persecution in _______ Escape persecution in _______ Plymouth founded Plymouth founded Mayflower _________ Mayflower _________ Plymouth a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent Plymouth a society of small farming villages bound together by mutual consent absorbed into Massachusetts Bay absorbed into Massachusetts Bay

8 “The Great Migration” Puritans Puritans Wish to remain within the ______ of __________, work to eliminate all remaining vestiges of the Roman _________ past Wish to remain within the ______ of __________, work to eliminate all remaining vestiges of the Roman _________ past Puritans despair as King Charles I begins Personal Rule Puritans despair as King Charles I begins Personal Rule ______ ________ leads Puritan group to Massachusetts, brings Company Charter ______ ________ leads Puritan group to Massachusetts, brings Company Charter

9 “A City on a Hill” ,000 immigrated ,000 immigrated Settlers usually came as family units Settlers usually came as family units Area generally healthy Area generally healthy Puritans sacrifice ___________ for the good of the community Puritans sacrifice ___________ for the good of the community Congregational Church Order Church members had to prove their experience with “__________” In spite of the level of religiosity in New England, the separation of church and state was advanced compared to Europe

10 “A City on a Hill” (2) Puritans establish ______________ Puritans establish ______________ a state-supported ecclesiastical system in which each congregation is independently governed by local church members a state-supported ecclesiastical system in which each congregation is independently governed by local church members Puritan civil government permits ___________ by all adult male church members Puritan civil government permits ___________ by all adult male church members Elected officials not to concern themselves with voters’ wishes Elected officials not to concern themselves with voters’ wishes

11 “A City on a Hill” (3) Local, town governments ____________ Local, town governments ____________ Most participated in public life at town level Most participated in public life at town level Townships commercial properties, shares of which could be bought and sold Townships commercial properties, shares of which could be bought and sold Village life intensely ________ Village life intensely ________ Laws and Liberties passed in 1648 to protect rights, ensure civil order Laws and Liberties passed in 1648 to protect rights, ensure civil order

12 New England Communities Stability and Order in Early New England Life expectancy in Puritan New England ______ as long as in Virginia By 1700, population of New England was 100,000—most from natural increase More stable families, which led to a more stable society with defined patterns of settlement Hierarchy in families reflected in village leadership

13 Women’s Lives in Puritan New England Women not legally equal with men Women not legally equal with men Marriages based on mutual love Marriages based on mutual love Most Women contributed to society as Most Women contributed to society as wives and mothers wives and mothers church members church members small-scale farmers small-scale farmers Women accommodated themselves to roles they believed God ordained Women accommodated themselves to roles they believed God ordained

14 Goodwives and Witches Defined gender roles in Puritan society— woman restricted to domestic work Significant legal barriers for women a. a.Turned over all property to husbands b. b.Could not sue or be sued c. c.Divorce was nearly impossible d. d.Could not vote Only in churches did Puritan woman command semi-equal standing with men

15 Contagion of Witchcraft Charges of witchcraft common Charges of witchcraft common accused witches thought to have made a compact with the devil accused witches thought to have made a compact with the devil _______ panic of 1691 much larger in scope than previous accusations _______ panic of 1691 much larger in scope than previous accusations 20 victims dead before trials halted in late summer of victims dead before trials halted in late summer of 1692 Causes include factionalism, economics Causes include factionalism, economics

16 Whites and Indians in Early New England Puritans made few efforts to covert Indians Compelling similarities between Puritan and __________ societies Bitter tensions culminated in Pequot’s War ( ) and King Philip’s War ( ) Disastrous impact of Old World diseases

17 King Philip’s War _________ leads Wampanoag-Narragansett alliance against colonists _________ leads Wampanoag-Narragansett alliance against colonists Colonists struggle to unite, defeat Indians Colonists struggle to unite, defeat Indians Deaths total 1,000+ Indians and colonists Deaths total 1,000+ Indians and colonists

18 Limits of Dissent: Roger Williams An extreme Separatist An extreme Separatist Questioned the validity of the colony’s ________ Questioned the validity of the colony’s ________ Champions “liberty of conscience” Champions “liberty of conscience” Williams expelled to Rhode Island, 1636 Williams expelled to Rhode Island, 1636

19 Limits of Dissent: Anne Hutchinson Believed herself directly inspired by the Holy Spirit Believed herself directly inspired by the Holy Spirit Believed “converted” persons could live without the Moral Law Believed “converted” persons could live without the Moral Law Charged that Congregational ministers preached a “covenant of works” Charged that Congregational ministers preached a “covenant of works” Banished to Rhode Island by General Court Banished to Rhode Island by General Court

20 Mobility and Division New Hampshire--insignificant until eighteenth century New Hampshire--insignificant until eighteenth century Rhode Island--received dissenters from Massachusetts Rhode Island--received dissenters from Massachusetts Connecticut--founded by Thomas Hooker Connecticut--founded by Thomas Hooker New Haven--absorbed into Connecticut New Haven--absorbed into Connecticut Tensions with Quakers

21 Sources of Stability: New England Colonies of the Seventeenth Century New Englanders replicated traditional English social order New Englanders replicated traditional English social order Contrasted with experience in other English colonies Contrasted with experience in other English colonies Explanation lies in development of Puritan families Explanation lies in development of Puritan families

22 Commonwealth of Families Most New Englanders married neighbors of whom parents approved Most New Englanders married neighbors of whom parents approved New England towns collections of interrelated households New England towns collections of interrelated households Church membership associated with certain families Church membership associated with certain families ________ provided by the family ________ provided by the family

23 Social Hierarchy in New England Absence of very rich necessitates creation of new social order Absence of very rich necessitates creation of new social order New England social order becomes New England social order becomes local gentry of prominent, pious families local gentry of prominent, pious families large population of independent yeomen landowners loyal to local community large population of independent yeomen landowners loyal to local community small population of landless laborers, servants, poor small population of landless laborers, servants, poor

24 Immigrant Families and New Social Order Puritans believed God ordained the ________ Puritans believed God ordained the ________ Reproduce patriarchal English family structure in New England Reproduce patriarchal English family structure in New England Greater longevity in New England results in “invention” of ________ Greater longevity in New England results in “invention” of ________ Multigenerational families strengthen social stability Multigenerational families strengthen social stability

25 New England Colonies, 1650

26 Diversity in the Middle Colonies New York New York New Jersey New Jersey Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Delaware Delaware

27 Middle Colonies, 1685

28 Anglo-Dutch Rivalry on the Hudson Location: ________ River Location: ________ River New Netherlands originally property of Dutch West Indies Company New Netherlands originally property of Dutch West Indies Company Population included Finns, Swedes, _________, Africans, as well as Dutch Population included Finns, Swedes, _________, Africans, as well as Dutch English fleet captured colony English fleet captured colony

29 Anglo-Dutch Rivalry on the Hudson (2) New York made personal property of ________, Duke of York New York made personal property of ________, Duke of York Property included New Jersey, Delaware, Maine, and various islands Property included New Jersey, Delaware, Maine, and various islands Inhabitants had no ______ ________beyond the local level Inhabitants had no ______ ________beyond the local level James derived little profit from the colony. James derived little profit from the colony.

30 Confusion in New Jersey Colony sold by Duke of York to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret Colony sold by Duke of York to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret Settlers refuse to pay ________ Settlers refuse to pay ________ grounds: New York governor had promised representative assembly grounds: New York governor had promised representative assembly Berkeley splits colony by selling out to ________ group Berkeley splits colony by selling out to ________ group

31 Confusion in New Jersey (2) West Jersey becomes Quakers’ colony West Jersey becomes Quakers’ colony Democratic system of government introduced Democratic system of government introduced Diverse, contentious Diverse, contentious Neither Jersey prospers, _________ by the crown in 1702 Neither Jersey prospers, _________ by the crown in 1702

32 Quakers in America Pennsylvania founding inseparable from Quakers Pennsylvania founding inseparable from Quakers “Quaker” a derogatory term for those who “tremble at the word of the Lord” “Quaker” a derogatory term for those who “tremble at the word of the Lord” Members call sect “Society of ___________” Members call sect “Society of ___________”

33 Quaker Belief and Practice Founder: George Fox ( ) Founder: George Fox ( ) Believed in “______ ______” Believed in “______ ______” Rejected idea of original sin, _____________ Rejected idea of original sin, _____________ Each may communicate directly with God Each may communicate directly with God Each has responsibility to cultivate Inner Light Each has responsibility to cultivate Inner Light Persecuted as dangerous anarchists Persecuted as dangerous anarchists

34 Penn's "Holy Experiment" Aristocrat William Penn converts to the Society of Friends Aristocrat William Penn converts to the Society of Friends Obtains a charter for Pennsylvania Obtains a charter for Pennsylvania "Holy Experiment"--a society run on Quaker principles "Holy Experiment"--a society run on Quaker principles Promotes religious _________ Promotes religious _________ Protects rights of property-less Protects rights of property-less

35 Settling Pennsylvania Immigrants recruited from England, Wales, Ireland, and Germany Immigrants recruited from England, Wales, Ireland, and Germany Quaker population racked by contention Quaker population racked by contention Non-Quaker population does not share Penn’s ideals Non-Quaker population does not share Penn’s ideals Penn grants self-rule to Pennsylvania colonists, independence to Delaware Penn grants self-rule to Pennsylvania colonists, independence to Delaware

36 Patterns of Settlement Population in Pennsylvania consisted of indentured servants, small farmers, and artisans Majority were Quakers, but also people of other faiths settled Unique peace between settlers and Indians, the Lenni Lenapes Quakers and Politics Constant tension among Penn, his council, the legislative assembly, and farmers

37

38 Rise of a Commercial Empire English leaders _________colonies until 1650s (salutary neglect) English leaders _________colonies until 1650s (salutary neglect) Restored monarchy of Charles II recognized value of colonial trade Restored monarchy of Charles II recognized value of colonial trade _________ passed to regulate, protect, glean revenue from commerce _________ passed to regulate, protect, glean revenue from commerce

39 Response to Economic Competition “Mercantilism” a misleading term for English commercial regulation “Mercantilism” a misleading term for English commercial regulation Regulations emerge as ad hoc responses to particular problems Regulations emerge as ad hoc responses to particular problems Varieties of motivation Varieties of motivation crown wants moneycrown wants money English merchants want to exclude DutchEnglish merchants want to exclude Dutch Parliament wants stronger Navy—encourage domestic shipbuilding industryParliament wants stronger Navy—encourage domestic shipbuilding industry everyone wants better _________ of tradeeveryone wants better _________ of trade

40 Glorious Revolution: The Dominion of New England King James II establishes “___________of New England” King James II establishes “___________of New England” colonial charters __________ colonial charters __________ colonies from Maine to New Jersey united colonies from Maine to New Jersey united Edmund Andros appointed governor Edmund Andros appointed governor Governor Edmund Andros used ruthless policies and leadership to enforce the authority of the English government Andros engendered hatred from nearly everyone

41 The Glorious Revolution in the Bay Colony: Outcomes 1688: James II deposed in favor of _____________ daughter, Mary, and her Dutch husband, William of Orange New Englanders take cue from the revolution and depose Edmund Andros Dominion overthrown; colonies given new charters, Massachusetts a new charter Massachusetts a new charter incorporates _________ incorporates _________ transfers franchise from "saints" to those with property transfers franchise from "saints" to those with property

42 The Glorious Revolution in New York News of James II’s overthrow prompts crisis of authority in New York News of James II’s overthrow prompts crisis of authority in New York Jacob Leisler seizes control Jacob Leisler seizes control Maintains position through 1690 Maintains position through 1690 March Governor Henry Sloughter arrests, executes Leisler March Governor Henry Sloughter arrests, executes Leisler

43 COMMON EXPERIENCES, SEPARATE CULTURES

44 Local Aspirations Within an Atlantic Empire By 1700 England’s attitude toward the colonies had changed dramatically By 1700 England’s attitude toward the colonies had changed dramatically Sectional differences within the colonies were profound Sectional differences within the colonies were profound They were all part of Great Britain but had little to do with each other They were all part of Great Britain but had little to do with each other

45 1696: ________initiated closer regulation of trade in the colonies By 1700, members of colonial assemblies understood the limits of royal power Growing threat to English colonies by ascendant ________ Royal Authority in America to 1700

46 Regulating Colonial Trade: The Navigation Act of 1660 Ships engage in English colonial trade Ships engage in English colonial trade must be made in England (or America) must be made in England (or America) must carry a crew at least _____ English must carry a crew at least _____ English Enumerated goods only to English ports Enumerated goods only to English ports 1660 list included tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dyes, ginger 1660 list included tobacco, sugar, cotton, indigo, dyes, ginger molasses, rice, naval stores also molasses, rice, naval stores also

47 Regulating Colonial Trade: The Navigation Act of 1663 Goods shipped to English colonies must pass through ________ Goods shipped to English colonies must pass through ________ Increased _______ paid by colonial consumers Increased _______ paid by colonial consumers

48 Regulating Colonial Trade: Implementing the Acts Navigation Acts spark __________ trade wars Navigation Acts spark __________ trade wars New England merchants skirt laws New England merchants skirt laws English revisions tighten loopholes English revisions tighten loopholes Board of ______ created Board of ______ created Navigation Acts eventually benefit colonial merchants Navigation Acts eventually benefit colonial merchants


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