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Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Engaging Māori Students

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1 Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Engaging Māori Students
VicTeach Workshop Culturally Responsive Pedagogy Engaging Māori Students Bi-cultural Professional Development in an Early Childhood Service. Implications to the Tertiary Sector? Na Dr Craig Rofe

2 Karakia … 2 Whakataka te hau ki te uru Cease the winds from the west
Whakataka te hau ki te tonga Cease the winds from the south Kia mākinakina ki uta Let the breeze blow over the land Kia mātaratara ki tai Let the breeze blow over the ocean E hī ake ana te atākura Let the red-tipped dawn come with a sharpened air He tio, he huka, he hau hū A touch of frost, a promise of glorious day Tihei Mauriora 2

3 Ko Anahera Karanga Scott taku tamāhine.
Anahera Karanga Scott is my daughter. 3

4 Ko Karanga te Wharepuni
Karanga is the meeting house. 4

5 Culturally Responsive Pedagogy (Geneva Gay)
Key Elements for Success for Teachers to Implement Culturally Responsive Pedagogy: Developing a Cultural Diversity Knowledge Base – “which ethnic groups give priority to communal living and cooperative problem solving …?” …. “how different ethnic groups’ protocols of appropriate ways for children to interact with adults ….” Teachers’ perceptions of multicultural education is superficial and distorted information ….. Designing Culturally Relevant Curricula – formal plans (standards) that avoid hegemony, emphasizing factual knowledge while ignoring attitudes, feelings, experiences. Symbolic Curriculum – images, symbols, icons …. Ensure represent wide variety ethnicities, genders, cultural diversity. Societal Curriculum – knowledge, ideas and impressions from TV, movies etc. Demonstrating Cultural Caring and Building a Learning Community. Cross Cultural Communications Cultural Congruity in Classroom Instruction Introduction to Culturally Relevant Pedagogy - Geneva Gay 5

6 Culturally Responsiveness and Cultural Competence
Cultural competency is closely related to cultural responsiveness. In the teaching context, cultural competence is about affirming and validating the culture of each learner (Hates, Johnston, King, 2009). The New Zealand Teachers’ Council (2014) argues that culturally competent teachers understand how they can use the learners’ culture(s) as building blocks to teach and learn and are able to build relationships with the learners. Perso (2012) in his literature review of cultural responsive and school education clarifies: ‘cultural responsiveness’ it the delivered outcome of the cultural competence (capacity) of an individual or an organization; Cultural responsiveness is the response planned for and delivered that derives from having cultural competence. To be more specific, Cultural Responsiveness is enacted Cultural Competence (p.22) (Emphasis is original) Fitzgerald (2000) describes culturally competent people as individuals able to identify and challenge their own assumptions, values and beliefs. They are able to empathise and see the world through the eyes of another or at least recognise that others may have a different cultural lens to view the world. 6

7 Ngā Tātaiako – Cultural Competencies (NZTC, 2012)
Ask students what their understandings of the Maori concepts are. Discuss with peer, feedback. 7

8 ECE Centre – Case Study 8 Centre has 23 staff members, 136 tamariki.
12 month duration for action research project. One hour professional workshops conducted every two months (5 total). Usual workshops late at night 7 pm!!!! 17 staff members involved in research side of project. Content of workshops consisted of Tataiako framework, Tataiako implementation into practice, Te Reo Māori, Tikanga Māori. Noho Marae (Marae overnight stay) - pōwhiri process [manuhiri/tangata whenua], marae roles and duties as tangata whenua. 8

9 ECE Centre – Case Study 9 Raraunga Rangahau (Research Data)
Phase 1 (Diagnostic Questionnaire) Phase 2 (Outline Tataiako Elements) Phase 2 (Review of Diagnostic) Phase 2 (Plan for Marae Experience) (Marae Prep - Waiata) (Marae Prep - Hakapowhiri) (Noho Marae) Phase 3 (Summative Questionnaire) 9

10 10

11 Diagnostic – BEGINNER TEACHERS 11

12 `Whanungatanga’– Relationships, (students, school wide, community) with high expectations.
Number of People 1 2 3 4 5 1/ Understands the impact of their own identity, language and culture (cultural locatedness) on relationships. 5/ Has the tools and strategies to develop successful relationships with Māori learners, whanau, hapū, iwi and communities. 12

13 Wānanga – Communication, Problem Solving, Innovation.
Number of People 1 2 3 4 5 (1 = poor competence, 5 = excellent competence) 13

14 `Ako’– practise in the classroom and beyond.
Number of People 1 2 3 4 5 14

15 Wananga Whanaungatanga Manaakitanga Tangata Whenuatanga Ako 15

16 Diagnostic - Summary/Reflection
Teachers have an overall confidence with the importance and acknowledgement of relationships with Māori learners/whanau/iwi. Above average competence with value/acceptance of Maori values, beliefs, language and culture. Teacher have an agreement of lack of skills to implement or explain most facets of elements of Tataiako. 16

17 PD Developments/Details
‘Classroom practice intervention’ (described later) provided a formative assessment of research project. Details confirmed that one hour workshops did not provide a sufficient authentic context to explore Maori concepts within a holistic regime (mind, body & soul). Noho marae event became an imperative platform to enable teachers to connect to a Māori worldview and provide connection to Tataiako elements (Wānanga, Whanaungatanga …….. etc). Unique environment of marae (Tapu te Ranga, Island Bay) provided opportunity of staff to take roles of ‘tangata whenua’ (local people). 17

18 Hypothetical Classroom Practice…
The following template was provided during PD to provide scaffolding to implement elements of Tataiako into teacher practice. 18

19 19 Practise Intervention Task 1 - External - Choice
Please choose a "behavioural indicator" from one of the competencies in the Tataiako document ( within your level of experience) to engage with. Example: Whanaungatanga / Beginning teacher / Demonstrates a willingness to engage with Iwi and Maori communities. Copy your choice in the box below and outline the reasons for your choice Task 2 - External - Action Describe what action you took and how you engaged with the indicator. Example - Made contact with the local iwi to enquire about educational programmes for Maori learners Your reflection could respond to key questions such as What did the action look like?/sound like?/ feel like? What impact did it have on your learners?/ you ?/ your colleagues?/ your learning centre?/ your friends and whanau? How might it influence your future practice? What difficulties / barriers did you encounter? What are potential areas for development / improvement? 19

20 Noho Marae Tapu te Ranga – ‘Family marae of Bruce Stewart and whanau provides full autonomy when visiting. Arrive as Manuhiri (visitors) Provide Wānaga environment to complete profficency in tangata whenua roles (Kaikaranga, hakapowhiri, kaiwhaikorero) 20

21 21 Kaikaranga with support from Maori staff.
Connecting staff to parents/whānau of centre and people from community. Hakapowhiri from ‘tangata whenua’ provided authentic context for Te Reo me Tikanga Māori. 21

22 22 Kaiwhaikorero with support from Māori staff. Waiata Tautoko
Tikanga Māori opportunities in context. 22

23 23 Hangi preparation – non traditional roles.
Children of centre participate in hangi prep. Manaakitanga for staff. Hakari (feast) provide opportunity for whakawhanaungatanga/lifting of tapu/tikanga. 23

24 24

25 Teachers’ Narratives “ it was different going through the powhiri on the other side I wasn’t a spectator “ “ was kind of deeper having us at the marae with a purpose ....” “.....I felt connected to the place we were at.....the powhiri connected me as tangata whenua...” 25

26 26 Experienced Teachers Wananga Whanaungatanga Manaakitanga
Before PD After PD Wananga Whanaungatanga Manaakitanga Tangata Whenuatanga Ako 26

27 ‘Hayley’ 27 Wananga Whanaungatanga Manaakitanga Tangata Whenuatanga
Ako 27

28 Conclusions …….. 28

29 References… Fitzgerald, M. H. (2000). Establishing cultural competency for mental health professionals. Anthropological approaches to psychological medicine, Hayes, D., Johnston, K., King, A. (2009) 'Creating enabling classroom practices in high poverty contexts: The disruptive possibilities of looking in classrooms' Pedagogy, Culture&Society17(3), Perso, T.F. (2012) Cultural Responsiveness and School Education: With particular focus on Australia’s First Peoples; A Review & Synthesis of the Literature. Menzies School of Health The New Zealand Teachers Council: Graduating Teachers Standards. Retrieved on 23 March 2014 from The New Zealand Teachers Council: Tātaiako - Cultural Competencies for Teachers of Māori Learners: A resource for use with the Graduating Teacher Standards and Registered Teacher Criteria.Retrieved 21 March2014 29

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