Presentation on theme: "APUSH English Colonies in North America"— Presentation transcript:
1 APUSH English Colonies in North America Mr. Weber217
2 Agenda Activator, agenda, and objective (10 minutes) Chapter 1 reading test (15-20 minutes)English Settlement Lecture (30 minutes)Give Me Liberty! Jigsaw reading ( minutes)Writing a summary (15 minutes)
3 Objective: You will master these College Board AP Topics 2. Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings, 1492– 1690: First European contacts with American Indians; Spain’s empire in North America; French colonization of Canada; English settlement of New England, the Mid- Atlantic region, and the South; From servitude to slavery in the Chesapeake region; Religious diversity in the American colonies; Resistance to colonial authority: Bacon’s Rebellion, the Glorious Revolution, and the Pueblo Revolt.3. Colonial North America, 1690–1754: Population growth and immigration; Transatlantic trade and the growth of seaports; The eighteenth-century back country; Growth of plantation economies and slave societies; The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening; Colonial governments and imperial policy in British North America
4 Ch. 1 Reading Test 10 AP style multiple choice questions 5 open response short answer questions.Good luck!
5 Chapter 2 Pre-reading Highlights Give Me Liberty!Chapter 2 Pre-reading Highlights
6 Beginnings of English America 1607-1660 Focus on Chesapeake and New England colonies.Motives for English colonization and reasons for emigration to the colonies.Contact with the Indians.Tobacco as the “gold” of the Virginia colony and required agricultural labor (slavery).New England colonies more about family and spirituality of the Puritans. More economically diverse.Puritans’ banish Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson from Massachusetts colony.
8 England and North America Motives for colonization:National glory, profit, and a missionary zeal motivated the English crown to settle America.Religious freedom for Protestants.People imagined a place where they could go to escape the economic inequalities of Europe.English crown issues charters for individuals such as Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh to colonize America at their own expense, but both failed.
9 Coming of the EnglishThe majority of English immigrants to North America were young, single, men from the bottom of society.2/3rds. Of English settlers came as indentured servants.Indentureds did not enjoy liberty while under contract.Land was the basis of liberty and the source of wealth and power for colonial officials.
10 The Chesapeake Jamestown Colony: Settlement and survival were questionable in the colony’s early history because of high death rates, frequent changes in leadership, inadequate supplies from England, etc.By percent of the immigrants who had arrived in the first 10 years were dead.John Smith began to get the colony on its feet.
12 Powhatan and Pocahontas Powhatan was the leader of 30 tribes near Jamestown and traded with the English.English-Indian relations were mostly peaceful early on.Pocahontas married John Rolfe in 1614 symbolizing Anglo-Indian harmony.Once the English decided on a permanent colony instead of merely a trading post conflict ensued.In the uprising of 1622 Opechancanough led an attack on Virginia’s settlers.English forced the Indians to recognize their subordination to the gov. of Jamestown and moved them to reservations.
15 New EnglandPuritanism emerged from the Protestant Reformation in England.Puritans followed the teachings of John Calvin and were strict on reading the Bible and listening to sermons.Many Puritans came for religious liberty and were governed by a system of “moral liberty.”Puritan work ethic stressed hard work as saving the soul
17 Plymouth Pilgrims came to Plymouth (Cape Cod) on the Mayflower. Signed the Mayflower Compact before going ashore.Squanto provided help to get the pilgrims through their first Thanksgiving.New England settlement would be very different than Chesapeake: more equal balance of power between men and women, longer life expectancy, more families, healthier climate.
18 Massachusetts Bay Colony Massachusetts Bay Company was chartered in to London merchants.Organized Mass. Into self-governing towns.Each town has Congregational church and school. (Harvard was started to educate ministers).Church membership was required to vote.Church and state were very connected.
19 Trials of Anne Hutchinson Hutchinson was a well-educated, articulate woman who charged that nearly all the ministers in Mass. Were guilty of faulty preaching.Placed on trial in 1637 for sedition and spoke of divine revelations while on trial.She and followers were banished from Mass.Mass. not practicing free religion: Quakers were hanged, for example.
23 I. England and the New World Reasons for England’s late entryProtracted religious strifeContinuing struggle to subdue IrelandAwakening of English attention to North AmericaEarly venturesHumphrey Gilbert’s failed Newfoundland colonyWalter Raleigh’s failed Roanoke colonyImpetus for North American colonizationNational rivalryOpposition to (Spanish) CatholicismSpain’s attempted invasion of EnglandDesire to match Spanish and French presence in the New World
24 I. England and the New World (cont’d) Awakening of English attention to North AmericaImpetus for North American colonizationSense of divine missionImage of Spanish brutality in the New WorldEngland’s self-conception as beacon of freedomMaterial possibilitiesProspects for trade-based empire in North AmericaSolution to English social crisisChance for laboring classes to attain economic independence
25 I. England and the New World (cont’d) English social crisis of late sixteenth centuryRoots ofPopulation explosionRural displacementElements ofUrban overcrowdingFalling wagesSpread of povertySocial instabilityGovernment answers toPunishment of dispossessedDispatching of dispossessed to the New World
26 II. Overview of seventeenth-century English settlement in North America Challenges of life in North AmericaMagnitude of English emigrationChesapeakeNew EnglandMiddle coloniesIndentured servitudeSimilarities to slaveryDifferences from slaverySignificance of access to landAs basis of English libertyAs lure to settlementAs resource for political patronageAs source of wealth
28 II. Overview of seventeenth-century English settlement in North America Englishmen and IndiansDisplacement of IndiansPreference over subjugation or assimilationLimits of constraints on settlersRecurring warfare between colonists and IndiansTradingImpact of trade and settlement on Indian life
29 III. Settling of the Chesapeake VirginiaInitial settlement at JamestownRocky beginningsHigh death rateInadequate suppliesInadequate laborVirginia Company measures to stabilize colonyForced laborHeadright system“Charter of grants and liberties”Indians and Jamestown settlersInitial cooperation and trade
31 Roger Williams and Rhode Island Roger Williams preached that any citizen ought to be free to practice whatever form of religion he chose.He believed it was essential to separate church and state.Was banished from the Mass. In 1636.Established Rhode Island as a beacon of religious freedom.
32 III. Settling of the Chesapeake (cont’d) VirginiaIndians and Jamestown settlersKey figures in early Indian-settler relationsPowhatanJohn SmithPocahontasSporadic conflictWar of 1622Opechancanough attack on settlersSettlers’ retaliationAftermathWar of 1644Defeat of Opechancanough rebellionRemoval of surviving Indians to reservationsContinuing encroachment on Indian land
33 III. Settling of the Chesapeake (cont’d) VirginiaTake-off of tobacco cultivationIntroduction and spreadEffectsIssuance of royal colonial charterRise of tobacco planter eliteSpread of settler agricultureRising demand for land and labor
34 III. Settling of the Chesapeake VirginiaEmerging strata of white VirginiaWealthy gentrySmall farmersPoor laborersIndentured servantsFreeWomen settlersQuest forStatus ofHardships
35 III. Settling of the Chesapeake (cont’d) MarylandSimilarities to Virginia colonyDistinctive featuresProprietary structureCecilius CalvertAbsolute power of proprietor vs. rights of colonistsResulting conflictReligious and political tensionsCalvert’s Catholic leanings vs. settlers’ Protestant leaningsReverberations of English Civil WarDiminishing prospects for the landless
36 IV. Settling of New England PuritanismEmergence in EnglandVariations withinCommon outlooksCentral importance of the sermonJohn Calvin’s ideasThe elect and the damnedSalvationWorldly behaviorZealousness
37 IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) Puritan separatistsGrowth under Charles IAimsConceptions of FreedomDenunciation of “natural liberty”Embrace of “moral liberty”Founding of Plymouth ColonyThe PilgrimsArrival at PlymouthMayflower CompactRocky beginningsHelp from IndiansThanksgiving
38 IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) Founding of Massachusetts Bay ColonyMassachusetts Bay CompanyGreat MigrationUnique features of New England settlementThe Puritan familyElements of patriarchyThe place of womenGovernment and society in Puritan MassachusettsAttitudes toward individualism, social unity
39 IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) Government and society in Puritan MassachusettsOrganization of townsSelf-governmentCivicReligiousSubdivision of landInstitutionsColonial governmentEmphasis on colonial autonomyPrinciple of consent“Visible Saints”
40 IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) Government and society in Puritan MassachusettsLines of hierarchyAccess to landStatus within churchSocial statureClaim to “liberties”Relation of church and stateNew Englanders dividedPrevailing Puritan valuesEmphasis on conformity to communal normsIntolerance of individualism, dissent
41 IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) New Englanders dividedRoger WilliamsCritique of status quoBanishmentEstablishment of Rhode IslandReligious tolerationDemocratic governanceOther breakaway coloniesHartfordNew HavenAnne HutchinsonChallenge to Puritan leadershipChallenge to gender normsTrial and banishment
42 IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) Puritans and coastal IndiansBalance of powerSettler’s numerical supremacyIndians’ lack of central political structureSettlers’ views of IndiansAs savagesAs dangerous temptationAs object to be removedRising frontier tensionsSettler war with and extermination of PequotsAftereffects of Pequot WarOpening of Connecticut River valley to white settlementIntimidation of other IndiansAffirmation of Puritan sense of mission
43 IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) New England economyEconomic motives behind New England settlementAspiration for a “competency”Land ownershipCraft statusAspiration for mercantile successBlending of religious and profit motivesEmerging New England economyFamily-based agricultureChiefly subsistence orientationBroad distribution of landExports to other colonies and EuropeRise of Boston merchant elite
44 IV. Settling of New England (cont’d) New England economyTensions within political/religious orderMerchant challenge to Puritan policiesOld-guard Puritan concern over “declension”Half-Way Covenant
45 V. Religion, politics, and freedom Gradually expanding “rights of Englishmen”Magna CartaEnglish Civil WarParliament vs. Stuart monarchsCommonwealth and restorationLevellers and DiggersRepercussions of English Civil War in colonial North AmericaIn New EnglandAmbivalence of PuritansQuakersEmergence ofPersecution of
46 V. Religion, politics, and freedom (cont’d) Repercussions of English Civil War in colonial North AmericaIn MarylandReligious-political crisisInitiatives to stabilize colonyCalvert’s pre-Protestant gesturesEnactment of religious toleration measure
47 Jigsaw Reading Posters Count off 1-4 and to form study groups.Read and take notes on your section for minutes. Discuss what you found to be important in that section.Form new super-groups groups made up one expert from each of the original study groups.Group 1:Group 2:Group 3:Group 4: