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Revolution in England Circa 1600s. Part 1: Divine Right Monarchs in England and Civil War “Houston…We’ve got a problem.”

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Presentation on theme: "Revolution in England Circa 1600s. Part 1: Divine Right Monarchs in England and Civil War “Houston…We’ve got a problem.”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolution in England Circa 1600s

2 Part 1: Divine Right Monarchs in England and Civil War “Houston…We’ve got a problem.”

3 The back story…  Queen Elizabeth dies in 1603-….As a result:  No heir…  She becomes last of the Tudor monarchs  But LOTS of debt…  Throne is passed down to her cousin King James VI of Scotland…who is now King James I (Stuart) of England  James is the son of Mary, Queen of Scots…who Elizabeth had beheaded  He is the first of the Stuart dynasty  James I and his son, Charles I, adopt the belief in the “divine right” theory  And…they’re Catholic…why is this a problem?

4 Divine Right of Kings

5 Divine Right…recap  Evolved during the Middle Ages  Kings are God’s representatives on earth….  Kings answered only to God and it was sinful for subjects to resist them…  Justified absolute rule…  BUT…

6 ABSOLUTE MONARCHY + PARLIAMENT =  Remember Parliament?  Established around the 13 th century  MAGNA CARTA – signed by King John  Placed the king under the law  Limited his powers  Gave more powers to nobles  Anyone sensing… trouble???

7 Let’s make a llllooooonnnngggg story short …  Charles I needs money for wars with Spain and France (Louis XIII)  He dissolves Parliament several times because they won’t give him money  Parliament finally agrees to give him money IF he signs the Petition of Right (places further limits on his power)  Reneges on this document- why? Because he’s an absolute monarch and the limitations contradict absolutism!!!  He dissolves Parliament and decides never to call them into session. AGAIN!  So…to raise money, he imposes fees and fines on the English people…and his popularity continues to wane…  He then tries to force everyone to follow one religion-Anglican (Scots and English)…but enough is enough…  The Scots threaten to invade, and he reinstates Parliament to ask for money…again…so he can fight the Scots.  Parliament uses this as an opportunity to oppose him…and WAR BEGINS!

8 The English Civil War  Cavaliers (Royalists)-those who support the King  Made up of Church of England and Catholic nobility  Wore their hair long  Roundheads-those who support Parliament  Made up mainly of Puritans from Parliament, merchants and bourgeoisie  Roundheads led by Oliver Cromwell  Wore their hair short

9 The Outcome…  1649: Cromwell and Puritans defeat the Cavaliers and bring Charles I to trial for treason against Parliament  “waging war on Parliament”  responsible for “all the murders, burnings, damages and mischiefs to the nation”  Charles refuses to defend himself since he is God’s representative on earth and no one has the right to pass judgment on him.  January 30 th, 1649, Charles I is beheaded. With an axe.

10 Part II: The Commonwealth and Restoration “INTERMISSION”

11 Cromwell’s Rule  Cromwell assumes power and abolishes the monarchy and Parliament.  He establishes a commonwealth, which is a republican form of government.  A constitution is written…and then torn up…and Cromwell becomes a military dictator.

12 Life under Cromwell and the Puritans  Reforms society—wants to make it moral  Abolishes sinful activities  Theater  Sporting events  Dancing  Tolerates all Christians but not Catholics; allows Jews to return

13 The Restoration  Cromwell dies in 1658…and the English people restore Parliament…  They are SICK of a military dictatorship.  So Parliament brings back the monarchy and reinstates Charles II, the son of Charles I.  Hence, THE RESTORATION.  Charles II signs the Habeas Corpus Act, which prevents the monarch from putting someone in jail for opposing him.  Does this sound familiar at all? Basically, it’s an arraignment hearing  Ever heard of…Innocent until proven guilty?  So…things are good…except…Charles II has no heir.

14 Part III: The Glorious Revolution “nipping it in the bud”

15 The Glorious Revolution  James II (brother) comes to power after Charles II dies.  James begins flaunting his Catholicism and dissolves a protesting Parliament…  With the birth of a son, fear cripples the nation…ANOTHER LINE OF CATHOLIC KINGS?!  What to do?!?!?!  All hope is NOT lost…there is another child!  James II’s daughter, Mary, is Protestant and married to a Protestant prince, William of Orange (Netherlands)  Parliament asks Mary and her husband to overthrow her father for the sake of Protestantism.  William leads an army to London and James flees to France…  ALAS! Protestantism is saved. No one had to die. Thus, the GLORIOUS Revolution (sometimes also known as the Bloodless Revolution).

16 Establishing a Constitutional Monarchy  Laws limit William and Mary’s powers.  Parliament is their partner in governing.  Parliament drafts the Bill of Rights in 1689, and W&M sign it.  No monarch can rule without the consent of Parliament. Parliament cannot rule without the consent of the monarch…Thus…

17 The Cabinet System  The cabinet system is developed to serve as a link between Parliament and the monarch.  Cabinet members act in the ruler’s name but represent the major party of Parliament.  The leader of the major party is called the Prime Minister.

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