Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Section3 The Colonies During the Restoration Pages 79-85."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 3 Section3 The Colonies During the Restoration Pages 79-85
Section 3 Objectives 1. Explain how the English came to settle the Carolinas and possess New York and New Jersey. 2. Understand the social ideals that guided the founding of Pennsylvania and Georgia. 3. Discuss how the Navigation Acts both helped and hurt the colonies. 4. Recount how the colonists reacted to the Glorious Revolution. 5. List the beliefs promoted by the Great Awakening.
Something to think about An economic policy that fundamentally changed a country’s relationship with its colonies; An intellectual revolution that fundamentally changed people’s conception of the world; A religious movement that fundamentally changed people’s notion of their spirituality. Take a moment to speculate about the events that might have caused these fundamental changes.
The Carolinas After the death of Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell. Charles II restored the monarchy’s power in England. This time period is called the Restoration. Colonization began when the king rewarded his supporters with grants of land. 1663-Charles II gave eight supporters a charter for a colony. This colony became known as Carolina. The colony later divided into North and South Carolina. 1720-Charles II took the colonies back over due to poor mismanagement by the proprietors.
Small farms were established by settlers from the Chesapeake in North Carolina. The first colonists to South Carolina came from Barbados. Many raised cattle, cut timber, and traded with the American Indians. Settlers eventually used the enslaved Africans’ knowledge and labor to transform the swampy coastal region into profitable rice plantations.
The Carolinas and the port of Charles Town (Charleston) supported a diverse population of European Jews, Germans, Scots, Scots-Irish, and West Indians. 1685-French Huguenots, or Protestants, fleeing religious persecution arrived. By 1720 South Carolina the demand for plantation workers was so great, slaves made up nearly two thirds of the population.
On large rice plantation many Africans had little contact with white colonists. So many retained their African traditions. Slaves on rice plantations worked under the task system. Slaves were assigned duties and when they were complete, they could tend to their own plots and take care of their own live stock. Many sold livestock and earned enough money to buy their freedom. Over time colonists implemented severe slave codes to keep slaves from becoming to independent.
New York and New Jersey 1624-Dutch West India Company established a colony in North America. 1625-New Netherland was established on the Manhattan Island and the town of New Amsterdam was settled. 1644-The Dutch West India Company had a hard time attracting the Dutch to the area. The Dutch did attach other types of inhabitants to the area. The colony’s director reported that settler’s spoke 18 different languages.
1664-Majority of settlers thought the leadership was ineffective and refused to defend the colony when an English fleet sailed into the New Amsterdam harbor and demanded the Dutch to surrender. Peter Stuyvesant-Colony’s governor surrendered without a shot being fired. Richard Nicolls-new governor promised to treat all colonists “with all humanity and gentleness consistent with safety and honor.”
Charles II made his brother, James, the Duke of York proprietor of New Netherland. James kept a part of the colony and named it New York New Jersey he gave to two friends. New Amsterdam was renamed New York City in honor of James. New Jersey soon was settled by other colonists.
Assignment Imagine that you are colonial cartoonists. Create a political cartoon and a caption on the settling of the Carolinas and the English acquisition of New Netherland.
Colonial Experiments The following colonies were established between 1681-1732, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Georgia. All were settled for different reasons which made them quite unique.
Pennsylvania and Delaware 1681-Charles II repaid his debt to Sir William Penn by making his son William Penn the proprietor of land near New York and eventually received the land from the Duke of York (Delaware). Penn wanted his colony of Pennsylvania to be a haven for Quakers who were persecuted by Anglicans and Puritans. Penn wanted Pennsylvania to be a “Holy Experiment” where people from different religious and nationalities could shape their own lives. He treated the Indians fairly and paid them for land.
Pennsylvania attracted poor immigrants who came to the colonies on crammed ships. Many who survived the voyage found cheap land and mild climate. Pennsylvania farmers produced grain and milled it into flour. They traded with other colonies and the West Indies. Philadelphia was the colony’s capital, with businesses on the waterfront. The colonists bought English goods and some purchased slaves.
Georgia 1733 -Georgia was a social experiment. James Oglethorpe and some trustees planned the colony in order to provide support for the English poor. Parliament supported the endeavor to be rid of the poor in London. The British thought the colony would be a buffer between South Carolina and Spanish Florida. The social experiment failed. Oglethorpe only wanted the most industrious of the poor. The rules were rigid, which included no rum or slavery.
1750 – The trustees allowed slavery in the colony. This came after the settlers from South Carolina complained that the plantations wouldn’t grow and prosper without slavery. 1752-Finally Oglethorpe and his partners gave up the experiment and let Georgia become a royal colony.
Governing the Georgia Colony The trustees of the Georgia colony ran their new settlement with a firm hand. They even dictated the amount of spices each colonist could possess precisely eight ounces. They also constantly reminded the settlers that were charity cases. One storekeeper announced in public that the colonists “had neither lands, rights or possessions; that the trustees gave and that the trustees gave and that the trustees could freely take away.” Like the trustees, the colonists did not acquit themselves well in Georgia. They constantly complained a bout their food, supplies, and houses. The failure of the Georgia experiment led one trustee to say that people “who had been useless in England, were inclined to be useless in Georgia likewise.”
Trade Mercantilism-economic policy and a nation’s wealth. Balance of Trade-export more than it imported. 1650-Navigation Acts-are to promote the wealth, safety, and strength of the kingdom.
Economics- The Dutch Threat and the Navigation Acts To a large degree, Parliament passed the Navigation Acts to prevent the Dutch from making economic gains in North America. Sometime after 1621, James I had announced that no foreign ships could enter Virginian ports. Dutch shippers completely ignored his order, building many profitable contacts. On the whole, colonial merchants liked to conduct business with Dutch shippers, who offered cheap rates, good markets, and a wide range of trade goods. Over time, these Dutch shippers dominated colonial trade. As a result, Parliament passed the Navigation Acts.
The Navigation Acts Benefited Northern shipbuilders and merchants. Reason: American shipbuilders could build ships cheaper than English shipbuilders, so they won additional business. Hurt Southern colonists Reason: Southerners produced the goods covered under the act.
James II and the Glorious Revolution 1675-The Lords of Trade was a committee to oversee the colonies for the Crown. Custom agents were sent to the colonies to enforce the Navigation Acts 1684-English government revoked the Massachusetts colony’s charter for violating the acts of trade and navigation.
1685-Duke of York became of James II. The new king authorized the Lords of Trade to organize the northern colonies into the Dominion of New England. 1686-Edmund Andros a former colonial governor took control of the Dominion. The colonists were upset when Andros abolished the Massachusetts General Court and imposed taxes without their consent.
1688- James II wasn’t popular in England, as Andros wasn’t in New England. In 1688 the Protestant opposition staged a bloodless rebellion called the Glorious Revolution. The king’s Protestant daughter, Mary, and her Dutch husband, William, Prince of Orange. James fled to France 1689-Parliament enacted a bill of rights to prevent future abuses. Colonists used the Glorious Revolution to rid themselves of disliked officials. Andros was put in jail and sent back to England. The Dominion was broken up in New England and restored the representative assemblies.
The Great Awakening The Glorious Revolution established that monarchy power flowed from the consent of Parliament, not the will of God. 1700s –Europe experienced Enlightenment, revolution in regard to ideas. The Enlightenment thinkers emphasized human reason as the key to improving society. Mid-1700s-Great Awakening-religious revivals that swept through the British colonies.
Jonathan Edwards-launched New England’s Great Awakening. 1729-His pastorship at a church in Northampton, Massachusetts. Appealed to people’s emotions as a way to open their hearts to God. 1730-religious revival began in Edward’s church and spread to surrounding churches.
1741-Edwards delivered his famous sermon. God was merciful and offered love to those who freely accepted it repented of their sins. This idea contrasted with many Protestants’ belief that God predetermined people’s futures before they were born. 1750-By the end of decade Edward’s church leaders thought he was overstepping. He was dismissed from his church duties. Edward’s died shortly after becoming president of the College in New Jersey, now Princeton.
1738-George Whitefield, British minister who spread the idea of the Great Awakening. The Great Awakening promoted the growth of new Protestant churches, such as Baptist and Methodist. Emotional services appealed to many people, particularly to the poor and the enslaved.
Biography Conduct research on a Great Awakening preacher. Prepare a one-page report. The reports should include biographical information, material on the preacher’s beliefs, images, and possibly excerpts of sermons.