2I. Government in the Colonies A. Traditions of English Government1. Magna Carta2. ParliamentB. Self-Rule in AmericaC. Dominion of New England EstablishedD. Glorious Revolution1. English Bill of Rights2. Salutary neglectII. England’s Economic Relationship With the ColoniesA. Mercantilism Drives the British EconomyB. Navigation Acts Regulate TradeC. Consumer RevolutionD. Triangular Trade RouteIII. New Ideas Affect the American ColoniesA. EnlightenmentB. Great AwakeningC. Impact1. Formation of new churches2. Rise in democratic beliefs
3ObjectivesExplore how English traditions influenced the development of colonial governments.Analyze the economic relationship between England and its colonies.Describe the influence of the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening on the 13 colonies.
4Terms and PeopleMagna Carta – 1215 document that limited the king’s ability to tax English nobles and that guaranteed due process and a right to trialParliament – English lawmaking bodyEnglish Bill of Rights – 1689 document guaranteeing a number of freedomshabeas corpus – idea that no one could be held in prison without being charged with a specific crimesalutary neglect – a policy in which England allowed its colonies self-rule
5Terms and People (continued) mercantilism – economic policy under which a nation accumulates wealth by exporting more goods than it importsNavigation Acts – a series of trade laws enacted by Parliament in the mid-1600sEnlightenment – European intellectual movement during the 1600s and 1700sBenjamin Franklin – American colonist inspired by the Enlightenment, he was a printer, author, scientist, and inventor
6Terms and People (continued) Great Awakening – a religious movement that occurred in the colonies in the mid-1700s
7Much of America’s political heritage and traditions come from England. When English colonists settled in British North America, they brought with them a sense of their rights as Englishmen.
8The English had a long governmental tradition. Magna CartaParliamentGlorious RevolutionIn 1215, English nobles made King John accept a limitation to his taxation and guaranteed the right to a trial.A two-house legislature composed of the House of Lords, an inherited position, and the House of Commons, elected by men with property.The English overthrew King James and installed William and Mary, who granted the English Bill of Rights.
10King John puts his mark to Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215
11Magna Carta “The Great Charter” 1215 King John was forced to agree to certain demands from noblesEstablished principle that everyone, including the king, was subject to the rule of lawProvided free men with the right to a fair trial
15ParliamentOver centuries, the idea evolved that Parliament represented the entire nation of EnglandSince the 17th century, Parliament has played a central role in shaping the development of Britain and in defining the rights and responsibilities of British citizens. (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk)
16English colonists claimed the same rights as those in England Because the government of England was far away, however, the colonies had a great deal of freedom in how they structured their governmentsSome (as in New England) established republics with elected governorsOthers had royal governors, but also elected representatives in colonial legislatures
17Dominion of New England 1685King James II revoked the charters in New England and combined those colonies with New York and New Jersey into the Dominion of New EnglandRoyal governor- Sir Edmond AndrosAfter the Glorious Revolution, the colonists rebelled and arrested Andros
18William and Mary, the new monarchs, made Massachusetts a royal colony with an elected assembly Maryland became a royal colonyRhode Island and Connecticut were permitted to keep their old chartersNew York- Jacob Liesler, who had led a rebellion there, was executed
19Glorious Revolution 1688-1689 King James II was overthrown His daughter Mary and her husband, William III, prince of Orange assumed the throneBloodless revolution
22English Bill of RightsThe right to a writ of habeas corpus (someone cannot be held in prison without being tried for a crime)Monarch could not keep a standing army in time of peace without Parliament’s approvalNo excessive bail or fines and no cruel and unusual punishment
23Zenger Trial1734John Peter Zenger, a newspaper publisher, was arrested for libel- printing falsehoods that are intended to damage a person’s reputation.His newspaper had printed articles criticizing the governorThe jury found Zenger not guilty (what he had published was true)
24SignificanceThis was an important first step towards freedom of the press.Legally, it still did not exist, though
25Colonists were English subjects and self-ruling. The colonists believed that the English Bill of Rights applied to them, even though they lived in the colonies.At the same time, the colonies enjoyed a long period of self- government and individual liberties.
26Salutary NeglectEngland allowed its colonies local self-rule (until the mid-18th century)
27MercantilismBased upon the belief that a nation could build wealth and power by developing its industries and exporting manufactured goods in exchange for gold and silver.Colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country.
28English mercantilism meant the colonies exported raw materials only to England. In exchange, the colonies bought manufactured goods from England.The cloth for this dress was produced in England
29The English Parliament passed trade laws called the Navigation Acts. The laws successfully regulated colonial trade to creategreat wealth and power for England in the 1600s.England collected custom duties- taxes on imported goods
30Consumer Revolution Transatlantic commerce expanded Cheaper goods increasingly entered the coloniescolonial imports per person increased by 50%1700- American colonies consumed about 10 percent of British exports. By 1772 it rose to 37%
31Significance British and colonists felt increasing pride in the empire Colonies increased in importance to BritainColonists suffered a trade imbalance- they imported more than they exported resulting in a shortage of cash.
32The new ideas of the Enlightenment in the 1600s and 1700s influenced Americans. Exposed colonists to new ways of thinking such as scientific reasoning and applying natural laws to government.People believed that human reason could solve issues.Colonial leader Benjamin Franklin was greatly inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment.
33Enlightenment Thinkers 1600s and 1700sEuropean intellectual movementEnlightenment thinkers believed that human problems could be solved by using reason
35HobbesLife is "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short"
36John Locke 17th century political theorist Second Treatise of Civil Government, 1690Social contract theoryPeople have a right to life, liberty and propertyGovernments are formed for the purpose of protecting these natural rightsProperty can be interpreted in different ways. One way is property as the product of one’s labor.
39In the colonies, the development of democracy was influenced by: the English parliamentary tradition.the colonies having a long period of self- rule.the new ideas of the European Enlightenment.the Judeo-Christian religious influence on colonial people.
40Religion played an important part in colonial life: Many colonists had immigrated for religious reasons.Churches played a social role in colonial life.Churches served as public places for reading government proclamations, holding elections, and posting new laws.
41George Whitefield was a popular preacher in the colonies who helped launch a new religious movement called the Great Awakening.Preachers traveled through the colonies and preached powerful, emotion-packed sermons.Many people left their old established churches, joined the movement, and started new churches.
42ReligionBy the early eighteenth century, the established New England Congregational Church was losing religious fervor. The Great Awakening, sparked by fiery preachers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield, spread a new style of emotional worship that revived religious zeal.
44Great Awakening Periods of religious revival (renewed enthusiasm) Ideas came from Europe and spread in the coloniesStressed the individual’s relationship with God.Undermined legally established churches and authorityLed to formation of new churchesGreat Awakening crossed colonial borders from Georgia to MassachusettsPrint helped spread the religious messagesSocial and religious tensionsIncreasing diversity of religions and democratization
451730s- Jonathan Edwards encouraged a religious revival in New England George Whitefield- English ministerAttracted huge crowds from Georgia to MassachusettsNew Lights were those who followed his message that they must seek salvation
46The Great Awakening gave rise to a changed political awareness. Participants in the Great Awakening came to realize that if they can select their own religion, they can also select their own government.