rev·o·lu·tion (noun) 1.overthrow of government; the overthrow of a ruler or political system 2.major change; a dramatic change in ideas or practice a revolution is not the conquest of one state by another a revolution is not simply a change in leaders or rulers, even if done violently some revolutions are violent; others are not some revolutions are swift; others unfurl over decades
Political and Non-Political Revolutions Neolithic Revolution Commercial Revolution Scientific Revolution Industrial Revolution English Revolution American Revolution French Revolution Haitian Revolution Iranian Revolution Egyptian Revolution? Revolutions have political, economic, social and cultural effects
Rock-a-bye baby In the treetops When the wind blows the cradle will rock When the bough breaks the cradle will fall And down will come baby, cradle and all
“ The state of monarchy is the supremest thing on earth. For kings are not only God ’ s lieutenants on earth, and sit upon God ’ s throne, but even by God Himself are called gods…. ” -- King James I of England, speaking to Parliament
But English society was changing… Conflicts between Protestants –Anglican Church vs. Calvinists (Puritans) Distribution of church lands had led to many “common” large landholders Rise of the English merchant class Nobility dissatisfied with loss of power to both king and commons Small farmers losing their land Peasants’ standard of living falling
Rise of “Commons” in Parliament leads to class and religious struggle with King Conflicts between Parliament and the king –Taxation (power) –Arbitrary arrest –Control over Religion New and old classes fight for power English Civil War: the start of the English Revolutions –Who will fight against the King? –What should be the goals of this war?
What kind of government do you want to replace absolutism? Do you want to change the economic structure of the nation? How? What kind of rights should be granted, and to who?
Grandees vs. Levelers What kind of government do you want to replace absolutism? Do you want to change the economic structure of the nation? How? What kind of rights should be granted, and to who?
“ Negative ” vs. “ Positive ” Rights NEGATIVE RIGHTS Freedom from oppression by government Freedom of speech Freedom of religion Right to bear arms POSITIVE RIGHTS Right to choose your own government Right to an education Right to a job – or land! Right to housing Right to healthcare
“ The Rights of Englishmen ” : Magna Carta, 12th century Trial by Jury Right to face your accuser in court Speedy trial No taxation without the consent of Parliament NEGATIVE RIGHTS
Execution of Charles I; Rise of Cromwell An Absolutist state; State control over Religion Who wins? Who loses? What do you want now?
The Glorious Revolution: triumph of the English bourgeoisie James II - a Catholic, tries to rule as an Absolutist When James has a son… Parliament invites his daughter Mary, and her husband William, king of the Netherlands (both Protestants), to rule England - The Glorious Revolution (1689) William signs the English Bill of Rights
What were the rights of “ free-born Englishmen? ” “ What did the common Englishman ’ s “ birthright ” consist in? … Freedom from absolutism, freedom from arbitrary arrest, trial by jury, equality before the law, the freedom of the home from arbitrary entrance and search…. the Englishman was not prepared to be “ pushed around ” …. The stance of the common Englishman was not so much democratic, in any positive sense, as anti-absolutist. He felt himself to be an individualist, with few affirmative rights, but protected by the laws against the intrusions of arbitrary power. …He claimed few rights except that of being left alone. ”
When the wind blows the cradle will rock When the bough breaks the cradle will fall And down will come baby, cradle and all The wind blows William and Mary to England James II and his Catholic baby flee to France The Glorious Revolution: 1689
Two similarities to watch for in all the revolutions of the 18 th and 19 th centuries: An emerging social class (the bourgeoisie) needs help from the common people to make their revolution victorious, and promises them rights and freedoms After the revolution is won, the new ruling class limits the promised rights of the common people