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Presentation on theme: "Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc.,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright Information Presentation Plus! Human Heritage: A World History Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

3 Splash Screen

4 3 Contents CHAPTER FOCUS SECTION 1Revolution in England SECTION 2The American Revolution SECTION 3The French Revolution CHAPTER SUMMARY & STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER ASSESSMENT Click a hyperlink to go to the corresponding section. Press the ESC key at any time to exit the presentation.

5 4 Chapter Focus 1 Overview Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter 32 examines the political revolutions that took place in Europe and the American colonies during the 1600s and 1700s.  –Section 1 discusses the reasons why revolution occurred in England in the 1600s.  –Section 2 describes causes of the American Revolution.  –Section 3 summarizes the causes and effects of the French Revolution.

6 5 Chapter Focus 2 Objectives summarize why revolutions erupted in England.  After studying this chapter, you will be able to: summarize causes of the American Revolution.  list the causes and effects of the French Revolution. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

7 6 Chapter Focus 2 Read to Discover Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Chapter Focus is on page 503 of your textbook. How revolution in England began during the 1600s  What British policies led to the American Revolution of the late 1700s  How the French Revolution came about in the late 1700s and what its results were

8 7 Chapter Focus 3 revolution  mercantilism  monopoly  direct tax  boycott  estates  Oliver Cromwell  Charles II  John Locke  Voltaire  Terms to Learn People to Know (cont.) Concord  Lexington  Yorktown  Bastille Places to Locate Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Click the Speaker On button to listen to the words. James I  Charles I  People to Know

9 8 By the 1700s, people in the western world had new ideas about government. They were less willing to be ruled without having a voice in politics. They also wanted equal justice under the law. They did not believe that monarchs or the Church had the right to tell them what to do. Thinkers and writers began spreading ideas about freedom and the right of people to change the government to meet their needs. For these reasons, the 1700s came to be known in Europe and the Americas as the Age of Enlightenment, or a time of increased knowledge. Chapter Focus 4 Why It’s Important Click the Speaker On button to replay the audio.

10 End of Chapter Focus

11 10 Section 1-1 Revolution in England In England, power struggles between the king and Parliament led to a civil war and a revolution, or an attempt to overthrow or change the government.  Parliament won, and the monarch ruled in the name of the people. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1 begins on page 503 of your textbook.

12 11 Section 1-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1603, the last Tudor monarch, Queen Elizabeth I, died.  The Crown, or royal power, passed to a distant relative, James VI of Scotland, who became James I of England.  James I believed in rule by divine right, and he dismissed Parliament and ruled without a legislature for ten years.  James I appointed a church committee to put together the King James version of the Bible. Conflict with Parliament

13 12 Section 1-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. When James I died in 1625, his son became King Charles I; he held the same beliefs about the monarchy as his father.  In 1628, Charles I was forced to call a meeting of Parliament to approve new taxes to pay for wars with France and Spain.  Parliament drew up the Petition of Right, stating that the king could not declare martial law, or rule by the army instead of by law, nor pass tax laws without Parliament's consent. Conflict with Parliament (cont.)

14 13 Section 1-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. At first, Charles I agreed, then, in 1629, he broke the petition and dismissed Parliament.  In 1640, Charles I again needed money to build a larger army to fight the Scots, so he called a meeting of Parliament.  Parliament passed a law abolishing taxes collected by the Crown without Parliament’s consent. Conflict with Parliament (cont.)

15 14 Section 1-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Once again, Charles I accepted Parliament’s laws and then disregarded them.  Civil war broke out between the Crown and Parliament.  Civil War –Those who backed the Crown were called Cavaliers, mostly rich Roman Catholics and Anglicans.  –Those who backed Parliament were called Roundheads, mostly middle- and lower-class Puritans and other Calvinists.

16 15 Section 1-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan leader who backed Parliament, formed a New Model Army.  In 1646, the New Model Army defeated the king's forces and ended the war.  Cromwell and his supporters put Charles I on trial for treason, the court found him guilty, and he was beheaded in Civil War (cont.)

17 16 Section 1-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. After the king’s death, Cromwell took over the rule of England and governed as a military dictator for the Puritan minority.  After Cromwell died, his son Richard took over, but by 1660, Parliament decided that England again needed a monarch. Oliver Cromwell

18 17 Section 1-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Parliament’s choice for king was Charles I’s son, who became Charles II.  He changed the English court to a center of gaiety and French fashion.  In September 1666 a great fire destroyed two-thirds of London’s buildings.  Charles II put Sir Christopher Wren, an architect, in charge of rebuilding the city.  As king, Charles II refused to consult with Parliament about foreign policy, or relations with other countries. The Return of the Stuarts

19 18 Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1685, Charles II died and his brother James became king.  Openly Roman Catholic, James II named many Roman Catholics to high posts in the army and the government, which was against a Parliament law.  James II also tried to have the Act of Habeas Corpus repealed, or abolished.  This act stated that a person could not be put in jail unless charged with a specific crime. The Glorious Revolution

20 19 Section 1-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The leaders of Parliament did not like James II and moved against him.  They offered the throne to Mary, James's Protestant daughter by his first wife.  William landed in England, James II fled to France, and William and Mary were named joint rulers.  Because the change in monarchs took place without a shot being fired, it came to be called the “Glorious Revolution.” The Glorious Revolution (cont.)

21 20 Section 1-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Many of the ideas behind the Glorious Revolution were explained in a book called Two Treatises of Government, written in 1690 by an English philosopher named John Locke.  He believed that people are born with certain natural rights, including the right to life, liberty, and property.  Locke’s ideas became a basis for the American Revolution and, later, the French Revolution. The Writings of John Locke

22 21 Section 1-Assessment 1 Section Assessment Why did civil war finally break out between the Crown and Parliament in 1642? Civil war broke out because Charles accepted the laws Parliament passed and then disregarded them. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

23 22 Section 1-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) Why did Parliament remove James II from the throne? Parliament removed James II because it was afraid of control by the Roman Catholic Church. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

24 23 Section 1-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Identifying the Central Issue What was the central issue addressed by England’s Declaration of Rights? The central issue was the power of the king versus the power of Parliament. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

25 24 Key ideas: people are born with certain rights; the purpose of government is to protect those rights; if a government fails to do so, people can revolt and set up a new government; the best kind of government is a representative one. Section 1-Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Draw the diagram on page 508 of your textbook, and use it to summarize the key ideas of John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

26 End of Section 1

27 26 Section 2-1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2 begins on page 508 of your textbook. The American Revolution At first, England and its American colonies got along well.  Eventually colonists became angry over English controls.  This led to revolution and the forming of a new country.

28 27 Section 2-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1660, most European leaders under Charles II believed in an economic system called mercantilism.  In this system, colonies served as a source of raw materials and as a market for finished products.  Mercantilism worked well until the 1700s because the colonists enjoyed a monopoly, or sole right, on the sale of several major crops.  Soon, however, colonists wanted to make their own manufactured goods. Mercantilism

29 28 Section 2-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Although England, now known as Great Britain, regulated colonial trade, the colonists handled local affairs.  In the middle of the 1700s this changed, resulting in a dispute that led to the French and Indian War.  At the end of the war, the British were deeply in debt and wanted the colonies to pay a large share of the money owed. Changes in British Policy

30 29 Section 2-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1765, Parliament passed the Stamp Act.  This was the first direct tax, a tax paid to the government, not included in the price of goods, which Parliament placed on the colonies.  People throughout the colonies decided to boycott, or refuse to buy, British goods.  In October 1765 delegates from 9 of the 13 colonies said that Parliament had no right to tax them because they did not have representatives in Parliament. Changes in British Policy (cont.)

31 30 Section 2-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In March 1766, Parliament finally voted to repeal the Stamp Act, but passed the Declaratory Act.  This stated that Parliament had the right to make laws on all matters concerning the colonies. Changes in British Policy (cont.)

32 31 Section 2-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1767, Parliament passed a series of laws known as the Townshend Acts which placed a tax many goods.  The Boston Massacre occurred in 1770, when a crowd of colonists antagonized a group of British soldiers; five people were killed.  Three years later, Parliament passed the Tea Act, allowing the British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonists. The Road to Revolution

33 32 Section 2-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In Massachusetts, a group of colonists dressed as Native Americans boarded a British ship in Boston harbor and dumped its cargo of tea into the water.  To punish the colonists, Parliament, in 1774, passed the Coercive Acts.  These closed Boston harbor and put the government of Massachusetts under military rule.  These acts also said that British troops in the colonies should be quartered, or given a place to live, in private homes. The Road to Revolution (cont.)

34 33 Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Next, Parliament passed the Quebec Act, which extended the boundaries of Quebec west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River.  The colonists called these laws the Intolerable Acts, or laws they could not bear.  In September 1774, delegates from 12 of the colonies met in Philadelphia, calling themselves the First Continental Congress.  Colonial leaders were divided about what to do. The Road to Revolution (cont.)

35 34 Section 2-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Fighting broke out in Massachusetts between the colonists and British soldiers.  In May 1775, the Second Continental Congress met and named George Washington head of the colonial army.  On July 4, 1776, Congress issued the Declaration of Independence, written mostly by Thomas Jefferson of Virginia.  The colonies broke away from Great Britain and declared themselves the United States of America; war with Great Britain began. The Outcome

36 35 Section 2-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1781, the Americans and French forced the British to surrender at Yorktown, Virginia, ending the fighting.  Two years later, the Treaty of Paris ended the war.  In 1789, the United States adopted a constitution that set up a new form of government and set forth certain principles of government:  The Outcome (cont.) –popular sovereignty–or the idea that a government receives its powers from the people.

37 36 Section 2-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. –limited government–the idea that a government may use only powers given to it by the people.  Later, ten amendments, or formal changes, known as the Bill of Rights, were added.  The Bill of Rights guarantees all American citizens such rights as freedom of speech, press, and religion; the right to trial by jury; and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. The Outcome (cont.)

38 37 Section 2-Assessment 1 Section Assessment Why were colonial legislatures powerful? They were powerful because they passed laws and controlled officials. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

39 38 Section 2-Assessment 2 Section Assessment (cont.) How did the Townshend Acts affect the power of the colonial legislatures? The Townshend Acts took away the legislatures’ main power. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

40 39 Section 2-Assessment 3 Section Assessment (cont.) Evaluating Information “The Bill of Rights is an important addition to the U.S. Constitution.” What is your opinion of this statement? Explain. Answer will vary. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

41 40 Section 2-Assessment 4 Section Assessment (cont.) Draw the diagram on page 513 of your textbook, and use it to show the causes and effects of the American Revolution. causes–growing colonial population, conflict over colonial manufacturing, conflict over taxation and representation effects–colonial independence, new constitution, Bill of Rights Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

42 End of Section 2

43 42 Section 3-1 Section 3 begins on page 513 of your textbook. The French Revolution The America Revolution influenced people in France, pointing up the need for political change and helping to bring about a revolution.

44 43 Section 3-2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Old Regime During the 1600s and early 1700s–the time of the Old Regime–France was a divine- right monarchy.  French society was divided into three estates, or classes.  –The First Estate was the clergy who were exempt, or free, from taxes.  –The Second Estate was the nobility, who were also free from taxes.  –The Third Estate was everyone else in France, who had no power in government, yet paid taxes.

45 44 Section 3-3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. At the top of the Third Estate was the bourgeoisie–bankers, merchants, lawyers, doctors, manufacturers, and teachers.  Next were the city workers–artisans, day laborers, and servants.  At the bottom were the peasants, who made up more than 80 percent of the French people. Old Regime (cont.)

46 45 Section 3-4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. By the 1780s, educated French writers and thinkers called philosophes wrote articles pointing out the country's political problems.  One of the most widely read philosophes was Francois Marie Arouet, known as Voltaire.  Lack of money was the major problem facing the French government.  Louis XVI called a meeting of the French legislature, called the Estates-General, to help decide how to raise money. The Estates-General

47 46 Section 3-5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Third Estate wanted a bigger voice in government, wanting the Estates-General to meet as a single body.  In May 1789, the Estates-General met, but the other two estates refused to meet with the Third Estate.  The Third Estate met as a separate body and called themselves the National Assembly.  Louis XVI finally gave in and ordered the First and Second Estates to meet with the National Assembly. The Estates-General (cont.)

48 47 Section 3-6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Meanwhile, a series of uprisings took place throughout most of France.  On July 14, 1789, a mob in search of weapons attacked and captured the Bastille, an old fort used as a prison.  It was a symbol of the tyranny, or unjust use of power, of the monarchy.  The mob then killed the mayor of Paris and set up a new city government.  Peasants attacked and burned the houses of the nobles, and destroyed feudal records. Uprisings in City and Country

49 48 Section 3-7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The uprisings caused the National Assembly to do away with the privileges of the clergy and nobles.  On August 27, 1789, the Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.  In 1791, a constitution was finished, establishing freedom of religion and making France a constitutional monarchy. The National Assembly

50 49 Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Under this kind of government, the Crown and the legislature would govern together.  Both representatives and voters had to have a certain amount of wealth.  This pleased the bourgeoisie because it gave them the power they wanted.  It did not please most peasants and the sans-culottes, or city workers, because they did not have enough money to vote. The National Assembly (cont.)

51 50 Section 3-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Rulers throughout Europe feared ideas from the French Revolution would weaken their own power.  French émigrés, or political exiles, encouraged the rulers to march into France and help Louis XVI take back control of the government.  Before any country could act, in the spring of 1792 France declared war on Austria, where the queen's brother ruled. The End of the Monarchy

52 51 Section 3-10 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. At first, the war did not go well for France, and Austrian and Prussian armies began marching toward Paris.  In the city, the sans-culottes took over and set up a new government called the National Convention, which made France a republic.  The following year, Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette were executed, and more European countries joined the war against France. The End of the Monarchy (cont.)

53 52 Section 3-11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The Committee of Public Safety, led by a lawyer named Maximilien de Robespierre took over the government.  Thousands of people, suspected of being against the Revolution, lost their lives to the guillotine, a machine with a heavy blade to cut off the victim’s head.  The wave of killing came to be known as the “Reign of Terror,” and government leaders had Robespierre executed. The End of the Monarchy (cont.)

54 53 Section 3-12 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. The following year, a third constitution was written which set up a government known as the Directory.  Most reforms of the Revolution ended as the French had grown more conservative.  One reform that did remain was the idea that all French people had the right to choose their government.  Another was a standard system of weights and measures known as the metric system, which the National Assembly adopted in The End of the Monarchy (cont.)

55 54 Section 3- Assessment 1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. What groups made up the three French estates? The clergy; the nobility; and the bourgeoisie, city workers, and peasants made up the three French estates. Section Assessment

56 55 Section 3- Assessment 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section Assessment (cont.) What did the National Assembly do about the uprisings in 1789? It ended the privileges of the clergy and nobles.

57 56 Section 3- Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section Assessment (cont.) Why did most reforms of the French Revolution come to an end under the Directory? They ended because the people of France had grown more conservative.

58 57 Section 3- Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section Assessment (cont.) Understanding Cause and Effect How did the storming of the Bastille help trigger the French Revolution? News of the Bastille spurred peasant uprising throughout France and caused the National Assembly to take steps that would end the French monarchy.

59 58 Section 3- Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section Assessment (cont.) Draw the diagram on page 520 of your textbook, and use it to compare the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen to the U.S. Declaration of Independence. Both documents stressed equality and the idea that power came from the people rather than the crown. The French Declaration included specific individual freedoms, such as freedom of speech, that Americans later included in the Bill of Rights. The U.S. Declaration asserted independence from Great Britain.

60 End of Section 3

61 60 Chapter Summary 1 Chapter Summary & Study Guide As a result of new ideas about freedom and government, the 1700s are known as the Age of Enlightenment.  England’s political revolution began in the 1600s when the Crown and Parliament disagreed over issues of divine right and religion.  In 1689, Parliament passed the Declaration of Rights, which made Parliament stronger and protected the rights of the people. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

62 61 Chapter Summary 2 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. In 1776, disagreements between the American colonies and Great Britain led to the Declaration of Independence, which defended the right to self-government.  In 1789, the United States adopted a new constitution based on the principles of popular sovereignty and limited government.

63 62 Chapter Summary 3 Chapter Summary & Study Guide (cont.) The French Revolution, which began in 1789, was ended by reaction against the Reign of Terror. However, two lasting reforms survived–use of the metric system and the idea of popular government.

64 End of Chapter Summary

65 64 Chapter Assessment 1 Understanding the Main Idea What were some Puritan beliefs? freedom of worship, hard work, and having a say in government Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

66 65 Chapter Assessment 2 Why was the Glorious Revolution called “glorious”? because the change in monarchs took place without gunfire Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

67 66 Chapter Assessment 3 How did Great Britain tighten its control over the American colonies? by passing new tax laws and taking steps to enforce them Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

68 67 Chapter Assessment 4 How did the British colonists respond to the Stamp Act? Angry mobs threatened tax officials, and British goods were boycotted. Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

69 68 Chapter Assessment 5 Who had the most power in the French government before the French Revolution? After the Revolution? the king; the Directory Understanding the Main Idea Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

70 69 Chapter Assessment 6 Understanding the Main Idea Why were European rulers afraid of the ideas of the French Revolution? because these ideas would weaken their own power Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

71 70 Chapter Assessment 9 What economic questions played a part in the American Revolution? In the French Revolution? mercantilism, direct taxes, and a boycott of British goods; exemption of a few from taxes, the nation’s deficit, and high food prices Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

72 71 Chapter Assessment 10 What were the most important political issues that played a part in England’s Glorious Revolution? Explain your answer. the conflict between Parliament and the king Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking

73 72 Chapter Assessment 11 Do you agree with the idea that people have the right to rule themselves? Explain. Critical Thinking

74 73 Chapter Assessment 12 Why are the 1700s known as the Age of Enlightenment? Critical Thinking

75 74 Chapter Assessment 13 Movement Look at the maps of the American Revolution on page 511 of your textbook. The advances and retreats of both armies are shown. About how many miles (or kilometers) did the British advance from the battle at Long Island, New York, to the battle at Brandywine, Pennsylvania? about 575 miles (or 925 km) Geography in History Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

76 75 Chapter Assessment 14 Choose one of the revolutions you have read about and identify one thing that could have been done to avoid that revolution. Explain.

77 End of Chapter Assessment

78 77 History Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Human Heritage: A World History Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to

79 78 Global Chronology 1688 Glorious Revolution takes place in England 1622 English Civil War begins 1789 U.S. Constitution is adopted 1776 U.S. issues Declaration of Independence Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

80 79 People in History 1.1 Born in Vienna, Austria, Marie- Antoinette grew up the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I. At age 15, she married Louis XVI in an effort to strengthen ties between France and Austria. Disliked as a foreigner, the queen was mistakenly accused of pushing France into debt with her luxurious lifestyle. During the Reign of Terror, she was charged with treason and executed. Marie-Antoinette 1755–1793 French Queen

81 80 Fun Facts 2.1 Many peace treaties have been signed in Paris, France. In addition to the treaty ending the American Revolution, they include those that ended the French and Indian War (1763), the European allies’ war with Napoleon (1814), and U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War (1973). Peace Treaties

82 81 Fun Facts 3.1 In October 1789, a mob of women walked to Versailles, a few miles outside Paris. Armed with sticks and farm tools, the “March of Women” stopped first at the National Assembly and demanded lower prices for bread. They then burst into the royal palace and forced Louis XVI, Marie- Antoinette, and their son–whom they called “the baker, the baker’s wife, and the baker’s little boy”–to return to Paris as prisoners of the people. The March of Women

83 82 Then & Now 1.1 Persecution of the Puritans under Charles I led to the Great Migration–the exodus of thousands of Puritans to America between 1630 to The Puritans founded the Massachusetts Bay Colony and later became known as the Congregationalist Church. Religion

84 83 Then & Now 3.1 The French revolutionaries adopted a red, white, and blue flag called the tricolor. France still uses this flag. The Tricolor

85 84 Map Skills 1.1 Reading a Military Map Maps that contain information about wars are called military maps.  They show troop movements, battle sites and dates, and battle victories.  Look at the legend for the two maps on page 511 of your textbook.  Notice that different symbols and colors stand for American and British advances, retreats, and battle victories. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

86 85 Map Skills 1.2 Reading a Military Map For example, the map has a solid red line to show that the British advanced to New York City, where they won a battle in August  This victory is indicated by a red star. The Americans then retreated to Trenton, New Jersey, as shown by a dashed blue line. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

87 86 Map Skills 1.3 Reading a Military Map Continued on next slide. Study the maps on page 511 of your textbook. Then answer the questions that follow.

88 87 Map Skills 1.4 Reading a Military Map Which army won the battle at Saratoga, New York? the American army Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continued on next slide.

89 88 Map Skills 1.5 Reading a Military Map Which army advanced to Camden, South Carolina, after the Battle of Charleston? the British army Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Continued on next slide.

90 89 Map Skills 1.6 Reading a Military Map Where did the British retreat to after the Battle of Guilford Courthouse? Wilmington Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

91 90 Technology Skills 1.1 Building a Database Have you ever collected baseball cards or cataloged the CDs in your collection? Have you ever kept a list of the names and addresses of your friends and relatives?  If you have collected information and kept some sort of list or file, then you have created a database. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

92 91 Technology Skills 1.2 Building a Database An electronic database is a collection of facts that are stored in files on a computer.  The information is organized in fields.  A database can be organized and reorganized in any way that is useful to you. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

93 92 Technology Skills 1.3 Building a Database By using a database management system (DBMS)–special software developed for record keeping–you can easily add, delete, change, or update information.  You give commands to the computer telling it what to do with the information, and it follows your commands. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Continued on next slide.

94 93 Technology Skills 1.4 Building a Database When you want to retrieve information, your computer searches through the files, finds the information, and displays it on the screen. Continued on next slide.

95 94 Technology Skills 1.5 Building a Database Continued on next slide. A number of democratic documents are discussed in this chapter. Follow the steps on the following slides to build a database of democratic documents written during the English, American, and French revolutions.

96 95 Technology Skills 1.6 Building a Database Continued on next slide. 1. Determine what facts you want to include in your database.  2. Follow instructions in the DBMS you are using to set up fields. Then enter each item of data in its assigned field.  3. Determine how you want to organize the facts in your database–in this case, alphabetically by the name of the document. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

97 96 Technology Skills 1.7 Building a Database Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. 4.Follow the instructions in your computer program to place the information in order of importance.  5. Check that all the information in your database is correct. If necessary, add, delete, or change information or fields.

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