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Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 The Transformation of Europe 1500-1800.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 The Transformation of Europe 1500-1800."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 1 The Transformation of Europe

2 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 2 What is Europe? “We know what it is until we stop to think about it.” The greatest impression Europe made on me was its figure: the Scandinavian dog up at the top, the Italian boot at the bottom, the lunging Iberian hammer...the ripped off islands away in the West that looked as if they were gradually being carried away to sea. Further to the left there was just ocean; Europe is obviously gazing outwards and bound for the world!

3 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 3 Sixteenth-century Europe As the French leader De Gaulle once complained, “it was almost impossible to govern a country that had 200 different kinds of cheese.”

4 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 4 Europe, a “cramped little cluster of nations.” political units political units nations Composite Civilization – no common culture, even if a common religion Mediterranean Sea functioned as a“wall,” with little trade b/t Europe and other cultures.

5 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 5 EUROPE IN 1500 Western 1/5 of Eurasia, neither the oldest nor most impressive civilization. -soil not that fertile. -population not that great (60-70 million) -“awkward geopolitically” -fragmented, no united Europe -on the losing end of struggles with the Muslims -most of its technology “borrowed” from Chinese and Muslim states -countries within Europe saw each other as rivals -warfare “gunpowder” states – much violence, competition within Europe “It’s relative weaknesses were more apparent than its strengths.”

6 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 6 Forces for Change in Europe Renaissance – Humanism (individualism) and Secularization Discovery of the Americas Reformation and 200 years of church decline Growth of national monarchies Emergence of capitalism and an independent merchant class

7 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 7 EARLY MODERN EUROPE TH 16 TH 17 TH 18 TH RENAISSANCEPROTESTANT REFORMATION SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION ENLIGHTENMENT HUMANISMSPLIT WITHIN THE CHURCH SCIENTIFIC METHOD- “START FROM SCRATCH” “CLOCKWORK UNIVERSE” REASON “CAPITALIST SPIRIT”INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM SKEPTICISMNATURAL LAWS PROGRESS OLD IMPERIALISM “GOD, GOLD, GLORY” SPAIN, PORTUGALSPAINNETHERLANDSENGLAND, FRANCE TraditionalModern

8 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 8 Why does Europe transform itself between ? OPPORTUNITY (thanks to the Americas and spice trade) MEANS (merchant capitalist organizations freed from government restraints, technology, military) MOTIVATIONS (competition among the Europeans), which they used, along with “God, Gold, and Glory,” and IDEAS (Renaissance and Reformation) to enhance their power

9 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 9 The Renaissance Renaissance = “rebirth” Humanism, secularism A 15th century cultural, artistic, and philosophical movement Centered in powerful city- states of Northern Italy, particularly Florence Brunelleschi’s dome on the cathedral of Florence

10 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 10 Creation of Adam by Michelangelo

11 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 11 Hands sketched by Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci

12 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 12 The growth of universities Europe’s first universities were built in the 11 th and 12 th centuries “Universities” were guilds of scholars and students Latin was the language of scholarship 1300  a dozen universities 1500  almost 100

13 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 13 Explosion in printing and literacy Introduction of moveable type and printing press c The Gutenberg Bible was the first book in the West printed with moveable type By 1500 ten million printed books were in circulation in Europe

14 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 14 The Gutenberg Press and Bible

15 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 15 Reconnaissance European Voyages OBJECTIVES: “God, Gold, Glory”? To avoid travel over land To bypass the Middle East and find easy passage to Asia To enter directly lucrative trade networks in the Indian Ocean To convert people to Christianity Pepper from the “Spice Islands” was a highly desired commodity in Europe

16 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 16 "I Am America" [A] fourth [continent] of the world... has been discovered by Amerigo Vespucci. Because... Europe and Asia were named after women, I can see no reason why anyone would have good reason to object to calling this fourth part Amerige, the land of Amerigo, or America, after the man of great ability who discovered it. Waldseemuller, 1507

17 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 17 European exploration, 1450–1600. Spanish and Portuguese explorers and traders had established settlements in South America and the Caribbean by 1600, and commercial depots on the coasts of Africa, India, the Pacific islands, China, and Japan—at a time when English, Dutch, and French explorations of North America had just begun.

18 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 18 Luther’s Defining Moment

19 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 19 The Protestant Reformation: Significance? Martin Luther ( ) attacks Roman Catholic church practices, 1517  Indulgences: preferential pardons for charitable donors Writes Ninety-Five Theses, rapidly reproduced with new printing technology Excommunicated by Pope Leo X in s-1530s dissent spread throughout Germany and Switzerland

20 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 20 The Demand for Reform: Question Authority Luther’s expanded critique  Closure of monasteries  Translations of Bible into vernacular languages  End of priestly authority, especially the Pope Return to biblical text for authority German princes interested  Opportunities for assertion of local control Support for reform spreads throughout Germany

21 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 21 Other Changes: The Consolidation of Sovereign States Absolutism – divine rights theory of kings  Louis XIV “L’etat c’est moi!” Constitutional States  England: constitutional monarchy “The Glorious Revolution”  Netherlands: republic Population Increases and Urbanization

22 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 22 Louis XIV

23 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 23 Europe after the Peace of Westphalia, 1648.

24 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 24 Population Growth in Europe

25 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 25 Urbanization

26 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 26 Reform outside Germany Switzerland, Low Countries follow Germany England: King Henry VIII (r ) has conflict with Pope over requested divorce  England forms its own church by 1560 France: John Calvin ( ) codifies Protestant teachings while in exile in Geneva Scotland, Netherlands, Hungary also experience reform movements

27 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 27 The Catholic Reformation Roman Catholic church reacts  Refining doctrine, missionary activities to Protestants, attempt to renew spiritual activity Council of Trent ( ) periodic meetings to discuss reform Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded by St. Ignatius Loyola ( )  Rigorous religious and secular education  Effective missionaries

28 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 28 Witch Hunts Most prominent in regions of tension between Catholics and Protestants Late 15 th century development in belief in Devil and human assistants 16 th -17 th centuries approximately 110,000 people put on trial, some 60,000 put to death  Vast majority females, usually single, widowed  Held accountable for crop failures, miscarriages, etc. New England: 234 witches tried, 36 hung

29 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 29 Religious Wars Protestants and Roman Catholics fight in France ( ) 1588 Philip II of Spain attacks England to force return to Catholicism  English destroy Spanish ships by sending flaming unmanned ships into the fleet Netherlands rebel against Spain, gain independence by 1610

30 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 30 The Thirty Years’ War ( ) Holy Roman emperor attempts to force Bohemians to return to Roman Catholic Church All of Europe becomes involved in conflict  Principal battleground: Germany Political, economic issues involved Approximately one-third of German population destroyed

31 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 31 The New Monarchs Italy well-developed as economic power through trade, manufacturing, finance Yet England, France, and Spain surge ahead in 16 th century, innovative new tax revenues  England: Henry VIII Fines and fees for royal services; confiscated monastic holdings  France: Louis XI, Francis I New taxes on sales, salt trade

32 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 32 Constitutional States England and Netherlands develop institutions of popular representation  England: constitutional monarchy  Netherlands: republic English Civil War,  Begins with opposition to royal taxes  Religious elements: Anglican church favors complex ritual, complex church hierarchy, opposed by Calvinist Puritans  King Charles I and parliamentary armies clash  King loses, is beheaded in 1649

33 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 33 The Glorious Revolution ( ) Puritans take over, becomes a dictatorship Monarchy restored in 1660, fighting resumes Resolution with bloodless coup called Glorious Revolution King James II deposed, daughter Mary and husband William of Orange take throne  Shared governance between crown and parliament

34 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 34 The Dutch Republic King Philip II of Spain attempts to suppress Calvinists in Netherlands, 1566 Large-scale rebellion follows, by 1581 Netherlands declares independence Based on a representative parliamentary system

35 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 35 Absolute Monarchies Theory of Divine Right of Kings French absolutism designed by Cardinal Richelieu (under King Louis XIII, )  Destroyed castles of nobles, crushed aristocratic conspiracies  Built bureaucracy to bolster royal power base  Ruthlessly attacked Calvinists

36 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 36 Louis XIV (The “Sun King,” ) L’état, c’est moi: “The State – that’s me.” Magnificent palace at Versailles, 1670s, becomes his court  Largest building in Europe  1,400 fountains  25,000 fully grown trees transplanted Power centered in court, important nobles pressured to maintain presence

37 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 37

38 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 38 “Enlightened Despots”

39 Copyright © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Permission Required for Reproduction or Display. 39 Absolutism in Russia: The Romanov Dynasty ( ) Peter I (“the Great,” r )  Worked to modernize Russia on western European model  Developed modern Russian army, reformed Russian government bureaucracy, demanded changes in fashion: beards forbidden  Built new capital at St. Petersburg Catherine II (“the Great”, r )  Huge military expansion Partitions of Poland,  Social reforms at first, but end with Pugachev peasant rebellion ( )


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