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Chapter 3 Colonies Come of Age 1650 - 1765 Section 1 England & It’s Colonies Section 2 Agricultural South Section 3 Commercial North Section 4 French &

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Colonies Come of Age 1650 - 1765 Section 1 England & It’s Colonies Section 2 Agricultural South Section 3 Commercial North Section 4 French &"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Colonies Come of Age 1650 - 1765 Section 1 England & It’s Colonies Section 2 Agricultural South Section 3 Commercial North Section 4 French & Indian War

2 Chapter 3 Objectives The Colonies Come of Age Learn about and analyze the key factors that would strain the relationship between England & its Colonies Learn about and analyze the key factors that would strain the relationship between England & its Colonies Among the key factors: Among the key factors: Economic Economic Social / Human Rights Social / Human Rights Political Growth Political Growth The Power of Ideas The Power of Ideas

3 Chapter 3 Key Dates The Colonies Come of Age 1651 Parliament passes first Navigation Acts 1660 English Monarchy re-established with return of Charles II 1686 James II creates Dominion of New England 1688 Glorious Revolution establishes Parliament as supreme over Monarchy 1710 Act of Union unites England, Scotland, Wales 1733 Benjamin Franklin publishes Poor Richard’s Almanac 1754 French & Indian War begins 1763 Treaty of Paris Ends French & Indian War

4 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Key Terms Key Terms Mercantilism Mercantilism Parliament Parliament Navigation Acts Navigation Acts Dominion of England Dominion of England Sir Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros Glorious Revolution Glorious Revolution Salutary Neglect Salutary Neglect

5 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies 1. Tighten England’s control over trade; protect against competition; increase England’s wealth 2. Increased England’s wealth by creating & protecting jobs for English citizens; protected English access to certain goods

6 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies 3. Spurred boom in the ship-building industry; England support colonial industry 4. Restricted Trade 5. Unpopularity of King James II (Catholicism); head off another Catholic king 6. Establishment of Parliament’s Power over the Crown

7 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies 7. Restoration of colonies original charter; requirements for more religious freedom in Massachusettes; SALUTORY NEGLECT

8 Chapter 3 Section 1 Economic Activities PAGE 67 New England colonies www.nps.gov/.../aah/AAheritage/histContextsD.htm

9 Chapter 3 Section 1 Economic Activities PAGE 67 New England colonies Massachusetts.........shipbuilding, shipping, fishing, lumber, rum, meat products Massachusetts.........shipbuilding, shipping, fishing, lumber, rum, meat products New Hampshire........ship masts, lumber, fishing, trade, shipping, livestock, foodstuffs New Hampshire........ship masts, lumber, fishing, trade, shipping, livestock, foodstuffs Connecticut..............rum, iron foundries, shipbuilding, Connecticut..............rum, iron foundries, shipbuilding, Rhode Island............snuff, livestock Rhode Island............snuff, livestock

10 Chapter 3 Section 1 Economic Activities PAGE 67 Middle colonies go.hrw.com/venus_images/M03a02.gif

11 Chapter 3 Section 1 Economic Activities PAGE 67 Middle colonies New York..................furs, wheat, glass, shoes, livestock, shipping, shipbuilding, rum, beer, snuff New York..................furs, wheat, glass, shoes, livestock, shipping, shipbuilding, rum, beer, snuff Delaware..................trade, foodstuffs Delaware..................trade, foodstuffs New Jersey...............trade, foodstuffs, copper New Jersey...............trade, foodstuffs, copper Pennsylvania............flax, shipbuilding Pennsylvania............flax, shipbuilding

12 Chapter 3 Section 1 Economic Activities PAGE 67 Southern colonies Virginia....tobacco, wheat, cattle, iron Virginia....tobacco, wheat, cattle, iron Maryland.......tobacco, wheat, snuff Maryland.......tobacco, wheat, snuff North Carolina.naval supplies, tobacco, furs North Carolina.naval supplies, tobacco, furs South Carolina..........rice, indigo, silk South Carolina..........rice, indigo, silk Georgia..indigo, rice, naval supplies, lumber Georgia..indigo, rice, naval supplies, lumber

13 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Mercantilism Mercantilism British felt the colonies should enrich Britain because the ultimate goal was for a country to become self-sustaining. British felt the colonies should enrich Britain because the ultimate goal was for a country to become self-sustaining. Balance of Trade Balance of Trade Country wants sell more goods than it buys (more money coming in) Country wants sell more goods than it buys (more money coming in) Colonies supplied raw materials; Colonies bought finished goods from Britain Colonies supplied raw materials; Colonies bought finished goods from Britain

14 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Navigation Acts (1651) British Rationale Navigation Acts (1651) British Rationale Colonial businesses were selling raw materials directly to competing countries. Colonial businesses were selling raw materials directly to competing countries. British felt that this type of trade was an economic threat (the other countries would take the raw materials and produce the same goods to sell) British felt that this type of trade was an economic threat (the other countries would take the raw materials and produce the same goods to sell) Rules Rules All goods had to be shipped via English ships All goods had to be shipped via English ships Ship’s crew must be ¾ English Ship’s crew must be ¾ English Certain products could only be exported to England Certain products could only be exported to England Most goods had to pass through English seaports Most goods had to pass through English seaports

15 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Navigation Acts (cont’d) Navigation Acts (cont’d) Some Colonial businesses ignored the rules – smuggling & illegal trading were common. Some Colonial businesses ignored the rules – smuggling & illegal trading were common. For the most part England ignored these activities ….. Until For the most part England ignored these activities ….. Until King Charles II decided to take action & indentified Massachusetts merchants as the biggest offenders King Charles II decided to take action & indentified Massachusetts merchants as the biggest offenders The Merchants (predominantly Puritans) felt they did not have to obey Parliament’s laws The Merchants (predominantly Puritans) felt they did not have to obey Parliament’s laws England revokes Massachusetts Charter & places the colony under the direct authority of the king England revokes Massachusetts Charter & places the colony under the direct authority of the king

16 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Navigation Acts (cont’d) Navigation Acts (cont’d) King Charles II http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_II_of_England

17 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Dominion of New England Dominion of New England The King James II places all Northern Colonies into a single entity – the Dominion The King James II places all Northern Colonies into a single entity – the Dominion Appoints Sir Edmund Andros to rule it Appoints Sir Edmund Andros to rule it He tells colonists “You have no privileges left you, than not being sold for slaves” He tells colonists “You have no privileges left you, than not being sold for slaves” Questions the legitimacy of Puritan’s religion Questions the legitimacy of Puritan’s religion Colonists want Andros gone & their old charter restored Colonists want Andros gone & their old charter restored

18 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Dominion of New England Dominion of New England Sir Edmund Andros Sir Edmund Andros http://www.yorktownsquare.com/img/040908-sub-Gov-Sir-Edmund-Andros.jpg

19 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Glorious Revolution – England Glorious Revolution – England The King James II The King James II Is Catholic & not of fan of Protestantism Is Catholic & not of fan of Protestantism Also not a fan of Parliament Also not a fan of Parliament Most subjects are Protestant AND like Parliament Most subjects are Protestant AND like Parliament Kings like him were the reason the people created this body Kings like him were the reason the people created this body

20 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Glorious Revolution – England Glorious Revolution – England When James II fathers an heir to the throw When James II fathers an heir to the throw Parliament invites James II son-in-law, William of Orange, to England to take over Parliament invites James II son-in-law, William of Orange, to England to take over James II takes off & William is offered/accepts the Throne James II takes off & William is offered/accepts the Throne Parliament passes laws of its power over the crown Parliament passes laws of its power over the crown

21 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Glorious Revolution – England Glorious Revolution – England William of Orange William of Orange

22 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Glorious Revolution – Colonies Glorious Revolution – Colonies Massachusetts colonists find out about King James II Departure Massachusetts colonists find out about King James II Departure Bloodless Rebellion Bloodless Rebellion Arrest Andros & his councilors Arrest Andros & his councilors Parliament eliminate Dominion & re- establishes colonies Parliament eliminate Dominion & re- establishes colonies

23 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies Glorious Revolution – Colonies Glorious Revolution – Colonies However Parliament Makes rules for Massachusetts However Parliament Makes rules for Massachusetts King appoints the governor King appoints the governor More non-Puritan representation in colonial assembly More non-Puritan representation in colonial assembly Puritans must cease persecuting Anglicans, Quakers. Puritans must cease persecuting Anglicans, Quakers.

24 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies England Loosens Up on Colonies England Loosens Up on Colonies England is focused on France England is focused on France Battling for control of Europe Battling for control of Europe England adds more teeth to the Navigation Acts England adds more teeth to the Navigation Acts Trials of Smugglers moved from colonial courts to admiralty courts / English judges Trials of Smugglers moved from colonial courts to admiralty courts / English judges Created an advisory group known as the Board of Trade granting power to monitor colonial trade Created an advisory group known as the Board of Trade granting power to monitor colonial trade

25 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies England Loosens Up on Colonies England Loosens Up on Colonies However, as long as colonies continued to export raw materials to England & import manufactured goods from England – measures were not strictly enforced = Salutary Neglect However, as long as colonies continued to export raw materials to England & import manufactured goods from England – measures were not strictly enforced = Salutary Neglect

26 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South HOMEWORK HOMEWORK Cash Crop Cash Crop Slave Slave Triangular Trade Triangular Trade Middle Passage Middle Passage Stono Rebellion Stono Rebellion

27 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South PLANTATION ECONOMY PLANTATION ECONOMY The South’s economy depended heavily on Agriculture The South’s economy depended heavily on Agriculture Tobacco from Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina Tobacco from Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina Rice, Indigo from South Carolina & Georgia Rice, Indigo from South Carolina & Georgia Focus on a single type of crop to be SOLD for money rather than consumed by the “planters” – CASH CROP Focus on a single type of crop to be SOLD for money rather than consumed by the “planters” – CASH CROP

28 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South PLANTATION ECONOMY PLANTATION ECONOMY This type of farming required lots of land - preferably located on deep rivers to allow ocean going vessels to ship directly to Northern Colonies and Europe This type of farming required lots of land - preferably located on deep rivers to allow ocean going vessels to ship directly to Northern Colonies and Europe Plantation owners produced what they needed from the plantation so know need for independent commerce e.g., shops, bakeries, stores Plantation owners produced what they needed from the plantation so know need for independent commerce e.g., shops, bakeries, stores RURAL & SELF SUFFICIENT RURAL & SELF SUFFICIENT

29 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South Diverse Population Diverse Population Immigration Patterns Germans, settle in Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina - raise Grain, Livestock & Tobacco; Scots & Scots- Irish mainly in hills of Western North Carolina Immigration Patterns Germans, settle in Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina - raise Grain, Livestock & Tobacco; Scots & Scots- Irish mainly in hills of Western North Carolina Women Women Second Class citizens, Basic, limited education. Mostly focused on domestic chores Second Class citizens, Basic, limited education. Mostly focused on domestic chores Planters daughters were spared household chores because servants handled these Planters daughters were spared household chores because servants handled these

30 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South Diverse Population Diverse Population Small farmers majority of population Planters controlled economy & had great Prosperity - 1713 to 1774 Tobacco prices triple Planters controlled economy & had great Prosperity - 1713 to 1774 Tobacco prices triple

31 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South Diverse Population Diverse Population Indentured Servants Indentured Servants Traded their labor in exchange for passage to colonies and future freedom Traded their labor in exchange for passage to colonies and future freedom Estimates indicate that One-half to Two-Thirds of all white immigrants after 1630 were Indentured Servants Estimates indicate that One-half to Two-Thirds of all white immigrants after 1630 were Indentured Servants Because of the harsh conditions, the influx of Indentured Servants dissipated, creating a need for alternative Labor resources Because of the harsh conditions, the influx of Indentured Servants dissipated, creating a need for alternative Labor resources

32 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South Slavery Slavery Europeans had a long tradition forced labor e.g., serfs, indentured servants, servants Europeans had a long tradition forced labor e.g., serfs, indentured servants, servants When demand for labor outstripped supply the Planters turned to enslaving African peoples. When demand for labor outstripped supply the Planters turned to enslaving African peoples. By 1750 more than 200,000 Africans were forced to work in the Southern Colonies By 1750 more than 200,000 Africans were forced to work in the Southern Colonies

33 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South Africans had been enslaved to work on sugar Plantations in Barbados & Jamaica in the 1600s (almost 60,000 by 1690) Africans had been enslaved to work on sugar Plantations in Barbados & Jamaica in the 1600s (almost 60,000 by 1690) Triangular Trade Triangular Trade Rum & Other goods ship from New England to Africa Rum & Other goods ship from New England to Africa This merchandise is traded for slaves, who are brought to the West Indies & sold to the Planters for sugar & molasses This merchandise is traded for slaves, who are brought to the West Indies & sold to the Planters for sugar & molasses New England distills the sugar and molasses into Rum & ships it to Africa New England distills the sugar and molasses into Rum & ships it to Africa

34 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South European Slave Trade European Slave Trade Middle Passage was the segment of the Triangular Trade that brought the slaves from Africa to the West Indies/North America Middle Passage was the segment of the Triangular Trade that brought the slaves from Africa to the West Indies/North America Slavery in the South Slavery in the South 80-90 percent of slaves brought to the colonies worked in the fields 80-90 percent of slaves brought to the colonies worked in the fields The remaining slaves worked as domestics or artisans The remaining slaves worked as domestics or artisans

35 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South Africans in the Colonies Africans in the Colonies Were pulled from different areas of Africa but despite the diversity Were pulled from different areas of Africa but despite the diversity The strong culture of “Kinship” was a driving force that enabled other slaves to help preserve some semblance of family The strong culture of “Kinship” was a driving force that enabled other slaves to help preserve some semblance of family The long-developed sense for nature and respect for ancestry helped the slaves preserve key activities such as storytelling, music, and dance The long-developed sense for nature and respect for ancestry helped the slaves preserve key activities such as storytelling, music, and dance

36 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South Africans in the Colonies Africans in the Colonies Resistance & Revolt Resistance & Revolt Many slaves did resist their condition (slowdowns, faked illness) Many slaves did resist their condition (slowdowns, faked illness) Others resorted to outright rebellion and escape attempts Others resorted to outright rebellion and escape attempts Stono Rebellion – 20 armed slaves revolted, killing a number of Planter families; invited other slaves to join them and escape to Florida Stono Rebellion – 20 armed slaves revolted, killing a number of Planter families; invited other slaves to join them and escape to Florida The revolt was put down with the slaves dying during the clash or were subsequently executed The revolt was put down with the slaves dying during the clash or were subsequently executed

37 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North Key Terms Key Terms Enlightenment Enlightenment Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin Jonathan Edwards Jonathan Edwards Great Awakening Great Awakening

38 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North Commerce Grows in the North Commerce Grows in the North “The North” includes New England & Middle Colonies “The North” includes New England & Middle Colonies Mercantilism - contributed to economic growth in both England and the colonies Mercantilism - contributed to economic growth in both England and the colonies 1650 to 1750 Colonies’ economy grew twice as fast as fast as England’s economy 1650 to 1750 Colonies’ economy grew twice as fast as fast as England’s economy

39 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North Commerce Grows in the North Commerce Grows in the North Development of Urban Centers Development of Urban Centers As Trade increases Port Cities Grow As Trade increases Port Cities Grow New York, Boston, Philadelphia as significant ports New York, Boston, Philadelphia as significant ports Philadelphia becomes the 2 nd largest city in the British Empire Philadelphia becomes the 2 nd largest city in the British Empire Grid plan drawn from Wren’s rebuilding plan for London (after Great Fire of 1666) Grid plan drawn from Wren’s rebuilding plan for London (after Great Fire of 1666) Parks, Police, Street Lighting Parks, Police, Street Lighting Lack of firewood, clean water, sanitation systems Lack of firewood, clean water, sanitation systems

40 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North Commerce Grows in the North Commerce Grows in the North Immigrants start arriving from other countries Immigrants start arriving from other countries In 1700 English/Welsh dominated Colonial Immigrant Population (80%) In 1700 English/Welsh dominated Colonial Immigrant Population (80%) By 1755 the % of English/Welsh immigrants made up on 52% By 1755 the % of English/Welsh immigrants made up on 52% Africans slave made up 20% Africans slave made up 20% Scots-Irish, Scottish, Irish & Dutch another 26% Scots-Irish, Scottish, Irish & Dutch another 26% Other ethnic groups included Scandinavians, Jews Other ethnic groups included Scandinavians, Jews

41 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North Ben Franklin’s Complaint Ben Franklin’s Complaint “Why should the Germans be suffered to swarm into our Settlements and, by herding together establish their Language and Manners to the Exclusion of ours? Why should Pennsylvania, founded by the English, become a Colony of Aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our Anglifying them?” “Why should the Germans be suffered to swarm into our Settlements and, by herding together establish their Language and Manners to the Exclusion of ours? Why should Pennsylvania, founded by the English, become a Colony of Aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our Anglifying them?”

42 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North Homework Homework Enlightenment Enlightenment Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin Jonathan Edwards Jonathan Edwards Great Awakening Great Awakening

43 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North Commerce Grows in the North Commerce Grows in the North Slavery in the North Slavery in the North Did exist in New England & was Extensive in the Middle Colonies Did exist in New England & was Extensive in the Middle Colonies Unlike the South, slaves in the north did have some legal standing Unlike the South, slaves in the north did have some legal standing Could sue & be sued Could sue & be sued Right of appeal / use of court system Right of appeal / use of court system

44 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North Commerce Grows in the North Commerce Grows in the North Slavery in the NORTH Slavery in the NORTH Harsh conditions as in South Harsh conditions as in South Laws forbade them from owning weapons and getting together Laws forbade them from owning weapons and getting together Rebellions Rebellions 1712 New York 21 executed 1712 New York 21 executed 1741 fear of a potential uprising – leads to burning alive of 13 slaves & hanging of 18 other slaves 1741 fear of a potential uprising – leads to burning alive of 13 slaves & hanging of 18 other slaves

45 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North Women In Northern Society Women In Northern Society Northern Colonial Wives Northern Colonial Wives Lots of work Lots of work No legal rights No legal rights No vote No vote Could not enter into contracts Could not enter into contracts Could not buy or sell property Could not buy or sell property Could not keep their own wages (if they worked outside home) Could not keep their own wages (if they worked outside home) Only single women/ widows could run their own business Only single women/ widows could run their own business

46 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North Salem Witch Trials – Feb 1692 Salem Witch Trials – Feb 1692 Environment of Fear due to Environment of Fear due to Strict limits on women Strict limits on women Fear of Native American attack Fear of Native American attack RELIGIOUS FANATICISM RELIGIOUS FANATICISM False accusations False accusations 19 Hanged 19 Hanged 01 Crushed to Death 01 Crushed to Death 150 Imprisoned 150 Imprisoned

47 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North New Ideas Influence the Colonists New Ideas Influence the Colonists The Enlightenment & Religion The Enlightenment & Religion Beginning around the Renaissance period, humans began to look beyond religious tenets to answer questions about the workings of the world Beginning around the Renaissance period, humans began to look beyond religious tenets to answer questions about the workings of the world Individuals moved from belief in spiritual prescripts to scientific research & methodologies Individuals moved from belief in spiritual prescripts to scientific research & methodologies As humans began to find that mathematical logic could be used to address many of the physical wonders of the universe – the authoritarian position of the church and religion weakened As humans began to find that mathematical logic could be used to address many of the physical wonders of the universe – the authoritarian position of the church and religion weakened

48 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North New Ideas Influence the Colonists New Ideas Influence the Colonists The Enlightenment & Authoritarian Govt’s The Enlightenment & Authoritarian Govt’s As with religion, some European & Colonial figures began to reflect upon the rights of an individual As with religion, some European & Colonial figures began to reflect upon the rights of an individual This concept challenged the current notion that a ruling class/government did not have the authority to deny its people what are considered to be natural rights This concept challenged the current notion that a ruling class/government did not have the authority to deny its people what are considered to be natural rights

49 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North New Ideas Influence the Colonists New Ideas Influence the Colonists The Great Awakening The Great Awakening Puritans losing control of their region Puritans losing control of their region Remember Charter of 1691 that demanded tolerance Remember Charter of 1691 that demanded tolerance Membership decreasing Membership decreasing People are focused on the Material World not the Here-After People are focused on the Material World not the Here-After Two approaches are taken to try to retain/grow membership Two approaches are taken to try to retain/grow membership “Old Lights” rely upon authoritarian means “Old Lights” rely upon authoritarian means “New Lights” travel the colonies & use revival meetings to convert / attract members “New Lights” travel the colonies & use revival meetings to convert / attract members New Denominations – e.g., Baptists, Methodists New Denominations – e.g., Baptists, Methodists

50 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North New Ideas Influence the Colonists New Ideas Influence the Colonists Enlightenment stressed human rights & reasoning Enlightenment stressed human rights & reasoning The Great Awakening stressed the importance of the individual & de-emphasized the role of church authority The Great Awakening stressed the importance of the individual & de-emphasized the role of church authority

51 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War Rivals For an Empire Rivals For an Empire Frenchman Jacque Cartier explores St. Lawrence seaway (1534) Frenchman Jacque Cartier explores St. Lawrence seaway (1534) Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec (1608) Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec (1608) French traders head deep into the continent French traders head deep into the continent Robert Cavalier claims Mississippi Valley for France (1682) naming it Louisiana Robert Cavalier claims Mississippi Valley for France (1682) naming it Louisiana Population of New France in 1754 is 70,000 Population of New France in 1754 is 70,000 Population of British Colonies is (1,000,000) Population of British Colonies is (1,000,000)

52 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War Rivals For an Empire Rivals For an Empire French colonists consisted primarily of Fur Traders and Catholic Priests French colonists consisted primarily of Fur Traders and Catholic Priests The Traders were interested in commerce The Traders were interested in commerce The Priests were interested in converts The Priests were interested in converts French colonists had better relationship Indians French colonists had better relationship Indians The Indians trapped for furs and then traded them to the French for goods The Indians trapped for furs and then traded them to the French for goods Unlike the English, the French Colonists weren’t squeezing the Indians out of their lands Unlike the English, the French Colonists weren’t squeezing the Indians out of their lands

53 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War Britain Defeats an Old Enemy Britain Defeats an Old Enemy France & Britain fought 2 wars over the past 50 years – inconclusive France & Britain fought 2 wars over the past 50 years – inconclusive France builds Ft. Duquesne (Pittsburgh) France builds Ft. Duquesne (Pittsburgh) Problem is Gov of Virginia had given 200,000 acres of land to wealthy planters Problem is Gov of Virginia had given 200,000 acres of land to wealthy planters George Washington (22) builds Ft. Necessity about 40 miles from Duquesne George Washington (22) builds Ft. Necessity about 40 miles from Duquesne GW attacks Duquesne in May 1754 but loses GW attacks Duquesne in May 1754 but loses

54 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War Britain Defeats an Old Enemy Britain Defeats an Old Enemy British, led by General Braddock attack Ft. Duquesne again British, led by General Braddock attack Ft. Duquesne again French/Native Americans use guerilla tactics versus the British form of combat – lining up in rows and marching directly at the enemy. British flee French/Native Americans use guerilla tactics versus the British form of combat – lining up in rows and marching directly at the enemy. British flee Washington gets first-hand view of British military might & is not impressed Washington gets first-hand view of British military might & is not impressed Brits continue to lose throughout 1755 & 1756 Brits continue to lose throughout 1755 & 1756

55 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War Britain Defeats an Old Enemy Britain Defeats an Old Enemy William Pitt takes over the reigns William Pitt takes over the reigns Demands more government funding Demands more government funding Hires new generals Hires new generals Possesses military savvy Possesses military savvy Iroquois Nation at odds with French, Huron and Algonquin tribes Iroquois Nation at odds with French, Huron and Algonquin tribes When Pitt-led army starts winning, the Iroquois join forces with British When Pitt-led army starts winning, the Iroquois join forces with British

56 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War Deciding Battle Deciding Battle September 1759 September 1759 Plains of Abraham outside Quebec Plains of Abraham outside Quebec General James Wolfe leads British on night- time attack surprising & defeats French General Montcalm & French Troops General James Wolfe leads British on night- time attack surprising & defeats French General Montcalm & French Troops This British victory led to the end of the war and the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763 This British victory led to the end of the war and the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763

57 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War Treaty of Paris 1763 Treaty of Paris 1763 Britain gets all of NORTH AMERICA east of the Mississippi Britain gets all of NORTH AMERICA east of the Mississippi Including Florida from Spain (who was French ally) Including Florida from Spain (who was French ally) Spain get French land west of the Mississippi including New Orleans Spain get French land west of the Mississippi including New Orleans France keeps a few islands near West Indies and Newfoundland France keeps a few islands near West Indies and Newfoundland

58 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War Victory Brings New Problems Victory Brings New Problems Native Americans recognize that British Colonial expansion into their land bodes very poorly for the future Native Americans recognize that British Colonial expansion into their land bodes very poorly for the future Pontiac determines that British authorities will do nothing to help – leads attack on British forts & captures 8 of them Pontiac determines that British authorities will do nothing to help – leads attack on British forts & captures 8 of them British use germ warfare by giving small-pox infected blankets to two Delaware chiefs during peace negotiations. Disease spreads rapidly British use germ warfare by giving small-pox infected blankets to two Delaware chiefs during peace negotiations. Disease spreads rapidly Most Native American Groups sign Peace Treaties by 1765 Most Native American Groups sign Peace Treaties by 1765

59 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War Victory Brings New Problems Victory Brings New Problems Proclamation of 1763 is signed between British and Native Americans. Proclamation of 1763 is signed between British and Native Americans. It banned colonists from settling WEST of the Appalachians It banned colonists from settling WEST of the Appalachians Proclamation Line Proclamation Line British could not enforce it so colonists kept moving West British could not enforce it so colonists kept moving West

60 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War Colonies & Britain Grow Apart Colonies & Britain Grow Apart British Policies anger the colonies British Policies anger the colonies Proclamation Line prohibits Colonists from expanding Proclamation Line prohibits Colonists from expanding British incurred heavy debt from war and need revenue British incurred heavy debt from war and need revenue Crackdown on smuggling – Writs of Assistance allowed British officials to search merchant ships & building (including homes) Crackdown on smuggling – Writs of Assistance allowed British officials to search merchant ships & building (including homes) King George III appoints George Grenville to help solve British financial woes King George III appoints George Grenville to help solve British financial woes Sugar Tax 1764 Sugar Tax 1764 Cut tax on molasses by one-half in hopes merchants would pay the lower tax rather than risk getting caught for smuggling Cut tax on molasses by one-half in hopes merchants would pay the lower tax rather than risk getting caught for smuggling Placed duties on certain imports Placed duties on certain imports Strenghthened the law allowing prosecutors to try smugglers in vice-admiralty courts rather than colonial courts Strenghthened the law allowing prosecutors to try smugglers in vice-admiralty courts rather than colonial courts


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