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Chapter 3 Colonies Come of Age

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Colonies Come of Age"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Colonies Come of Age 1650 - 1765
Section 1 England & It’s Colonies Section 2 Agricultural South Section 3 Commercial North Section 4 French & Indian War

2 Chapter 3 Objectives The Colonies Come of Age
Learn about and analyze the key factors that would strain the relationship between England & its Colonies Among the key factors: Economic Social / Human Rights Political Growth The Power of Ideas

3 Chapter 3 Key Dates The Colonies Come of Age
1651 Parliament passes first Navigation Acts 1660 English Monarchy re-established with return of Charles II 1686 James II creates Dominion of New England 1688 Glorious Revolution establishes Parliament as supreme over Monarchy 1710 Act of Union unites England, Scotland, Wales 1733 Benjamin Franklin publishes Poor Richard’s Almanac 1754 French & Indian War begins 1763 Treaty of Paris Ends French & Indian War

4 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Key Terms Mercantilism Parliament Navigation Acts Dominion of England Sir Edmund Andros Glorious Revolution Salutary Neglect

5 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Tighten England’s control over trade; protect against competition; increase England’s wealth Increased England’s wealth by creating & protecting jobs for English citizens; protected English access to certain goods

6 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
3. Spurred boom in the ship-building industry; England support colonial industry 4. Restricted Trade 5. Unpopularity of King James II (Catholicism); head off another Catholic king 6. Establishment of Parliament’s Power over the Crown

7 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
7. Restoration of colonies original charter; requirements for more religious freedom in Massachusettes; SALUTORY NEGLECT

8 Chapter 3 Section 1 Economic Activities PAGE 67
New England colonies

9 Chapter 3 Section 1 Economic Activities PAGE 67
New England colonies Massachusetts shipbuilding, shipping, fishing, lumber, rum, meat products New Hampshire ship masts, lumber, fishing, trade, shipping, livestock, foodstuffs Connecticut rum, iron foundries, shipbuilding, Rhode Island snuff, livestock

10 Chapter 3 Section 1 Economic Activities PAGE 67
Middle colonies go.hrw.com/venus_images/M03a02.gif

11 Chapter 3 Section 1 Economic Activities PAGE 67
Middle colonies New York furs, wheat, glass, shoes, livestock, shipping, shipbuilding, rum, beer, snuff Delaware trade, foodstuffs New Jersey trade, foodstuffs, copper Pennsylvania flax, shipbuilding

12 Chapter 3 Section 1 Economic Activities PAGE 67
Southern colonies Virginia....tobacco, wheat, cattle, iron Maryland tobacco, wheat, snuff North Carolina .naval supplies, tobacco, furs South Carolina rice, indigo, silk Georgia ..indigo, rice, naval supplies, lumber

13 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Mercantilism British felt the colonies should enrich Britain because the ultimate goal was for a country to become self-sustaining. Balance of Trade Country wants sell more goods than it buys (more money coming in) Colonies supplied raw materials; Colonies bought finished goods from Britain

14 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Navigation Acts (1651) British Rationale Colonial businesses were selling raw materials directly to competing countries. British felt that this type of trade was an economic threat (the other countries would take the raw materials and produce the same goods to sell) Rules All goods had to be shipped via English ships Ship’s crew must be ¾ English Certain products could only be exported to England Most goods had to pass through English seaports

15 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Navigation Acts (cont’d) Some Colonial businesses ignored the rules – smuggling & illegal trading were common. For the most part England ignored these activities ….. Until King Charles II decided to take action & indentified Massachusetts merchants as the biggest offenders The Merchants (predominantly Puritans) felt they did not have to obey Parliament’s laws England revokes Massachusetts Charter & places the colony under the direct authority of the king

16 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Navigation Acts (cont’d) King Charles II

17 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Dominion of New England The King James II places all Northern Colonies into a single entity – the Dominion Appoints Sir Edmund Andros to rule it He tells colonists “You have no privileges left you, than not being sold for slaves” Questions the legitimacy of Puritan’s religion Colonists want Andros gone & their old charter restored

18 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Dominion of New England Sir Edmund Andros

19 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Glorious Revolution – England The King James II Is Catholic & not of fan of Protestantism Also not a fan of Parliament Most subjects are Protestant AND like Parliament Kings like him were the reason the people created this body

20 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Glorious Revolution – England When James II fathers an heir to the throw Parliament invites James II son-in-law, William of Orange, to England to take over James II takes off & William is offered/accepts the Throne Parliament passes laws of its power over the crown

21 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Glorious Revolution – England William of Orange

22 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Glorious Revolution – Colonies Massachusetts colonists find out about King James II Departure Bloodless Rebellion Arrest Andros & his councilors Parliament eliminate Dominion & re-establishes colonies

23 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
Glorious Revolution – Colonies However Parliament Makes rules for Massachusetts King appoints the governor More non-Puritan representation in colonial assembly Puritans must cease persecuting Anglicans, Quakers.

24 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
England Loosens Up on Colonies England is focused on France Battling for control of Europe England adds more teeth to the Navigation Acts Trials of Smugglers moved from colonial courts to admiralty courts / English judges Created an advisory group known as the Board of Trade granting power to monitor colonial trade

25 Chapter 3 Section 1 England & Its Colonies
England Loosens Up on Colonies However, as long as colonies continued to export raw materials to England & import manufactured goods from England – measures were not strictly enforced = Salutary Neglect

26 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
HOMEWORK Cash Crop Slave Triangular Trade Middle Passage Stono Rebellion

27 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
PLANTATION ECONOMY The South’s economy depended heavily on Agriculture Tobacco from Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina Rice, Indigo from South Carolina & Georgia Focus on a single type of crop to be SOLD for money rather than consumed by the “planters” – CASH CROP

28 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
PLANTATION ECONOMY This type of farming required lots of land - preferably located on deep rivers to allow ocean going vessels to ship directly to Northern Colonies and Europe Plantation owners produced what they needed from the plantation so know need for independent commerce e.g., shops, bakeries, stores RURAL & SELF SUFFICIENT

29 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
Diverse Population Immigration Patterns Germans, settle in Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina - raise Grain, Livestock & Tobacco; Scots & Scots-Irish mainly in hills of Western North Carolina Women Second Class citizens, Basic, limited education. Mostly focused on domestic chores Planters daughters were spared household chores because servants handled these

30 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
Diverse Population Small farmers majority of population Planters controlled economy & had great Prosperity to 1774 Tobacco prices triple

31 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
Diverse Population Indentured Servants Traded their labor in exchange for passage to colonies and future freedom Estimates indicate that One-half to Two-Thirds of all white immigrants after 1630 were Indentured Servants Because of the harsh conditions, the influx of Indentured Servants dissipated, creating a need for alternative Labor resources

32 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
Slavery Europeans had a long tradition forced labor e.g., serfs, indentured servants, servants When demand for labor outstripped supply the Planters turned to enslaving African peoples. By 1750 more than 200,000 Africans were forced to work in the Southern Colonies

33 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
Africans had been enslaved to work on sugar Plantations in Barbados & Jamaica in the 1600s (almost 60,000 by 1690) Triangular Trade Rum & Other goods ship from New England to Africa This merchandise is traded for slaves, who are brought to the West Indies & sold to the Planters for sugar & molasses New England distills the sugar and molasses into Rum & ships it to Africa

34 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
European Slave Trade Middle Passage was the segment of the Triangular Trade that brought the slaves from Africa to the West Indies/North America Slavery in the South 80-90 percent of slaves brought to the colonies worked in the fields The remaining slaves worked as domestics or artisans

35 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
Africans in the Colonies Were pulled from different areas of Africa but despite the diversity The strong culture of “Kinship” was a driving force that enabled other slaves to help preserve some semblance of family The long-developed sense for nature and respect for ancestry helped the slaves preserve key activities such as storytelling, music, and dance

36 Chapter 3 Section 2 The Agricultural South
Africans in the Colonies Resistance & Revolt Many slaves did resist their condition (slowdowns, faked illness) Others resorted to outright rebellion and escape attempts Stono Rebellion – 20 armed slaves revolted, killing a number of Planter families; invited other slaves to join them and escape to Florida The revolt was put down with the slaves dying during the clash or were subsequently executed

37 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
Key Terms Enlightenment Benjamin Franklin Jonathan Edwards Great Awakening

38 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
Commerce Grows in the North “The North” includes New England & Middle Colonies Mercantilism - contributed to economic growth in both England and the colonies 1650 to 1750 Colonies’ economy grew twice as fast as fast as England’s economy

39 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
Commerce Grows in the North Development of Urban Centers As Trade increases Port Cities Grow New York, Boston, Philadelphia as significant ports Philadelphia becomes the 2nd largest city in the British Empire Grid plan drawn from Wren’s rebuilding plan for London (after Great Fire of 1666) Parks, Police, Street Lighting Lack of firewood, clean water, sanitation systems

40 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
Commerce Grows in the North Immigrants start arriving from other countries In 1700 English/Welsh dominated Colonial Immigrant Population (80%) By 1755 the % of English/Welsh immigrants made up on 52% Africans slave made up 20% Scots-Irish, Scottish, Irish & Dutch another 26% Other ethnic groups included Scandinavians, Jews

41 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
Ben Franklin’s Complaint “Why should the Germans be suffered to swarm into our Settlements and, by herding together establish their Language and Manners to the Exclusion of ours? Why should Pennsylvania, founded by the English, become a Colony of Aliens, who will shortly be so numerous as to Germanize us instead of our Anglifying them?”

42 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
Homework Enlightenment Benjamin Franklin Jonathan Edwards Great Awakening

43 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
Commerce Grows in the North Slavery in the North Did exist in New England & was Extensive in the Middle Colonies Unlike the South, slaves in the north did have some legal standing Could sue & be sued Right of appeal / use of court system

44 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
Commerce Grows in the North Slavery in the NORTH Harsh conditions as in South Laws forbade them from owning weapons and getting together Rebellions 1712 New York 21 executed 1741 fear of a potential uprising – leads to burning alive of 13 slaves & hanging of 18 other slaves

45 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
Women In Northern Society Northern Colonial Wives Lots of work No legal rights No vote Could not enter into contracts Could not buy or sell property Could not keep their own wages (if they worked outside home) Only single women/ widows could run their own business

46 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
Salem Witch Trials – Feb 1692 Environment of Fear due to Strict limits on women Fear of Native American attack RELIGIOUS FANATICISM False accusations 19 Hanged 01 Crushed to Death 150 Imprisoned

47 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
New Ideas Influence the Colonists The Enlightenment & Religion Beginning around the Renaissance period, humans began to look beyond religious tenets to answer questions about the workings of the world Individuals moved from belief in spiritual prescripts to scientific research & methodologies As humans began to find that mathematical logic could be used to address many of the physical wonders of the universe – the authoritarian position of the church and religion weakened

48 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
New Ideas Influence the Colonists The Enlightenment & Authoritarian Govt’s As with religion, some European & Colonial figures began to reflect upon the rights of an individual This concept challenged the current notion that a ruling class/government did not have the authority to deny its people what are considered to be natural rights

49 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
New Ideas Influence the Colonists The Great Awakening Puritans losing control of their region Remember Charter of 1691 that demanded tolerance Membership decreasing People are focused on the Material World not the Here-After Two approaches are taken to try to retain/grow membership “Old Lights” rely upon authoritarian means “New Lights” travel the colonies & use revival meetings to convert / attract members New Denominations – e.g., Baptists, Methodists

50 Chapter 3 Section 3 The Commercial North
New Ideas Influence the Colonists Enlightenment stressed human rights & reasoning The Great Awakening stressed the importance of the individual & de-emphasized the role of church authority

51 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War
Rivals For an Empire Frenchman Jacque Cartier explores St. Lawrence seaway (1534) Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec (1608) French traders head deep into the continent Robert Cavalier claims Mississippi Valley for France (1682) naming it Louisiana Population of New France in 1754 is 70,000 Population of British Colonies is (1,000,000)

52 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War
Rivals For an Empire French colonists consisted primarily of Fur Traders and Catholic Priests The Traders were interested in commerce The Priests were interested in converts French colonists had better relationship Indians The Indians trapped for furs and then traded them to the French for goods Unlike the English, the French Colonists weren’t squeezing the Indians out of their lands

53 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War
Britain Defeats an Old Enemy France & Britain fought 2 wars over the past 50 years – inconclusive France builds Ft. Duquesne (Pittsburgh) Problem is Gov of Virginia had given 200,000 acres of land to wealthy planters George Washington (22) builds Ft. Necessity about 40 miles from Duquesne GW attacks Duquesne in May 1754 but loses

54 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War
Britain Defeats an Old Enemy British, led by General Braddock attack Ft. Duquesne again French/Native Americans use guerilla tactics versus the British form of combat – lining up in rows and marching directly at the enemy. British flee Washington gets first-hand view of British military might & is not impressed Brits continue to lose throughout 1755 & 1756

55 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War
Britain Defeats an Old Enemy William Pitt takes over the reigns Demands more government funding Hires new generals Possesses military savvy Iroquois Nation at odds with French, Huron and Algonquin tribes When Pitt-led army starts winning, the Iroquois join forces with British

56 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War
Deciding Battle September 1759 Plains of Abraham outside Quebec General James Wolfe leads British on night-time attack surprising & defeats French General Montcalm & French Troops This British victory led to the end of the war and the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1763

57 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War
Treaty of Paris 1763 Britain gets all of NORTH AMERICA east of the Mississippi Including Florida from Spain (who was French ally) Spain get French land west of the Mississippi including New Orleans France keeps a few islands near West Indies and Newfoundland

58 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War
Victory Brings New Problems Native Americans recognize that British Colonial expansion into their land bodes very poorly for the future Pontiac determines that British authorities will do nothing to help – leads attack on British forts & captures 8 of them British use germ warfare by giving small-pox infected blankets to two Delaware chiefs during peace negotiations. Disease spreads rapidly Most Native American Groups sign Peace Treaties by 1765

59 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War
Victory Brings New Problems Proclamation of 1763 is signed between British and Native Americans. It banned colonists from settling WEST of the Appalachians Proclamation Line British could not enforce it so colonists kept moving West

60 Chapter 3 Section 4 The French & Indian War
Colonies & Britain Grow Apart British Policies anger the colonies Proclamation Line prohibits Colonists from expanding British incurred heavy debt from war and need revenue Crackdown on smuggling – Writs of Assistance allowed British officials to search merchant ships & building (including homes) King George III appoints George Grenville to help solve British financial woes Sugar Tax 1764 Cut tax on molasses by one-half in hopes merchants would pay the lower tax rather than risk getting caught for smuggling Placed duties on certain imports Strenghthened the law allowing prosecutors to try smugglers in vice-admiralty courts rather than colonial courts


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