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©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers 1660–1715 CHAPTER 3 CONTROLLING THE EDGES OF THE CONTINENT CREATED EQUAL JONES  WOOD 

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Presentation on theme: "©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers 1660–1715 CHAPTER 3 CONTROLLING THE EDGES OF THE CONTINENT CREATED EQUAL JONES  WOOD "— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers 1660–1715 CHAPTER 3 CONTROLLING THE EDGES OF THE CONTINENT CREATED EQUAL JONES  WOOD  MAY  BORSTELMANN  RUIZ

2 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers “How miserable that man is that Governes a People where six parts of seaven at least are Poore Endebted Discontented and Armed.” Sir William Berkeley, Governor the colony of Virginia, 1676

3 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE 1660Navigation Act Councils for Trade and Plantations created 1661King Louis XIV, “The Sun King”, assumes control of France 1663Louis XIV assumes control of New France Royal Adventurers into Africa granted monopoly in slave trade 1664Charles II regains control of NewNetherland 1665The Great Plague in Europe 1666Severe drought in New Mexico 1669Ashley-Cooper and Locke draw up Fundamental Constitutions 1670Charter granted to Hudson’s Bay Company 1672Royal Africa Company granted monopoly in slave trade 1673Joliet and Marquette explore from upper Mississippi to Gulf of Mexico La Salle builds Fort Frontenac Plantation Duty Act

4 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE continued 1674Peace of Westminster 1675Metacom’s War (King Philip’s War) 1676Bacon’s Rebellion 1680Pueblo revolt 1681William Penn granted charter to Pennsylvania 1682La Salle explores the lower Mississippi region, naming “Louisiana” 1685 Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes James II takes English throne 1688William of Orange and “The Glorious Revolution” 1689King William’s War 1692Salem Witch Trials 1697King William’s War ends Spanish mission, Cahokia established (Illinois)

5 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers TIMELINE continued 1701War of Spanish Succession begins The Act of Settlement 1702English raiders attack St. Augustine, Florida New Jersey becomes an English royal colony Queen Anne’s War begins 1703Spanish mission, Kaskaskia, established (Illinois) 1705The Naval Stores Act 1710Cary’s Rebellion 1711Tuscarora Indians war 1712Crozat granted control of Louisiana 1714War of Spanish Succession ends 1715Louis XIV dies Yamasee rebellion 1718San Antonio de Valero established

6 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers CONTROLLING THE EDGES OF THE CONTINENT Overview HFrance and the American Interior HThe Spanish Empire on the Defensive HEngland’s American Empire Takes Shape HBloodshed in the English Colonies HConsequences of War and Growth

7 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers FRANCE AND THE AMERICAN INTERIOR HThe Rise of the Sun King HExploring the Mississippi Valley HKing William’s War in the Northeast HFounding the Louisiana Colony

8 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HFrance in the American Interior,

9 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Rise of the Sun King HFrench King Louis XIV: HThe French mercantilist strategy to use labor efficiently, import resources and export goods to trade for gold and silver. HThe settlers of colonies were to send need natural resources and to make consumers for the manufactured goods. HJean-Baptiste Colbert, French finance minister shipped agriculture equipment, military governor, artisans and servants to Quebec to promote a vibrant community. HSevere winters and short growing seasons hindered growth HDissenters were not sent to colonies as the English did, but rather prevented from leaving France HHowever, 150,000 did manage to migrate to the New World, and many to the English colonies.

10 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Exploring the Mississippi Valley HJean Nicolet: 1643, travels all the way to modern-day Green Bay, Wisconsin HJoilet and Marquette: 1673, explore the upper Mississippi to the Arkansas River HLa Salle: 1673, erects Fort Frontenac on Lake Ontario. H1682: La Salle explores the lower Mississippi to the Gulf HWhen he tries to return with ships through the Gulf, his miscalculations land him in Texas where he is killed and most die in the wilderness.

11 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers King William’s War in the Northeast HWilliam III, a Protestant takes the English throne in 1689 beginning a 100-year war between Protestant England and Catholic France HThe war stretches to America HEnglish align with the Iroquois HFrench with the Hurons HIn 1697 the war ends in stalemate HThe Iroquois pledge to remain neutral during future colonial wars HKing Carlos II of Spain dies without an heir. Both England and France vie for Spain in the War of Spanish Succession, 1701 to 1714.

12 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Founding the Louisiana Colony HLa Salle had claimed the entire river basin of the Mississippi for the French, naming it Louisiana. HIberville and his brother Bienville HFort Louis at Biloxi Bay HOther French posts emerge HPeoria, Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Fort de Chartes, Detroit HLouisiana granted to a Paris merchant, Antoine Crozat

13 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers THE SPANISH EMPIRE ON THE DEFENSIVE HThe Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico HNavajos and Spanish on the Southwestern Frontier HBorderland Conflict in Texas and Florida

14 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico HDrought, Apache and Navajo attacks, and controversy over religion flame rebellion by Pueblos at Santa Fe. HSexuality: Pueblos clashed with Catholics in their acceptance of homosexuality, the importance of sexuality to social and spiritual life. HMixed-race people supported the rebellion as well HPopé, militant leader, invokes Po he yemu, the sun spirit HAugust 10th the Pueblos triumph over the Catholic settlers

15 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Navajos and Spanish on the Southwestern Frontier HNavajos benefit from Pueblo refugees HHorses, improved corn farming, textiles, weaving HThe friar-explorer Eusebio Kino HTravels to the Sonoran Desert in Arizona HMeets the Yuma Indians and deduces that California is part of the mainland HSpanish unable to benefit from this knowledge until 1760s

16 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Borderland Conflict in Texas and Florida HTexas HSpanish establish several colonies in Texas HExpanded Spanish missionaries and outposts in east Texas. HSan Antonio de Valero (1718) HFlorida HFlorida natives gravitate to Carolinas nearer the English HSpanish livestock ruining gardens and Catholicism breeds resentment in the Florida Indians H1702: English raiders attack St. Augustine H1704: Carolina Governor, James Moore invades Apalachee Floriday destroying the missions

17 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers ENGLAND’S AMERICAN EMPIRE TAKES SHAPE HMonarchy Restored and Navigation Controlled HFierce Anglo-Dutch Competition HThe New Restoration Colonies

18 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Monarch Restored and Navigation Controlled H1660: Navigation Act HMerchants could not conduct trade to or from English colonies in foreign-owned ships HNon-English products from foreign lands had to be carried in English ships or with mostly English crews HCertain products could not go straight from colonies to European ports, but had to pass through England first H1663: Navigation Act HProducts from European ports to colonies had to go through England H1673: Plantation Duty Act HCaptains had to pay plantation duty before moving goods between colonies

19 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Fierce Anglo-Dutch Competition HNavigation Acts disturb Dutch trade and war breaks out between England and Holland HPeace of Westminister in 1674 brings gains to the English: HIsland in Africa at the Gambia and Cape Coast Castle on the Gold Coast challenging Dutch dominance HNew York, the region from Delaware River and the Connecticut River

20 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The New Restoration Colonies HCharles II grants charters H1670: Hudson Bay Company, trade, minerals, land in northern Canada H1679: New Hampshire a proprietorship H1681: William Penn granted a charter to Pennsylvania H1674: East and West Jersey divided. In 1702 united. H1669: Ashley-Cooper, Carolina proprietor, and John Locke, draw up Fundamental Constitutions

21 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers BLOODSHED IN THE ENGLISH COLONIES HMetacom’s War in New England HBacon’s Rebellion in Virginia HThe “Glorious Revolution” in England HThe “Glorious Revolution” in America

22 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers HMetacom’s War in New England,

23 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Metacom’s War in New England HMetacom’s (Wampanoag tribe) grievances with the English: HIndians were cheated in trade deals HLivestock trampled crops HColonists outnumber the Native Americans HJohn Sassamon, and Indian informer is killed by and 3 Wampanoags are hanged for the crime by the English HJanuary 1675: The “Great Swamp Fight” HNarragansetts align with the Wampanoags HMohawks oppose Metacom and Christian Indians join colonial forces HAugust 1675: Metacom beheaded, wife and children sold into slavery in the West Indies, and colonists rebuild

24 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia H1676: Nathaniel Bacon wages a war against the Occaneechis and the Susquehannocks, challenging leadership of Governor Berkeley. HBacon is joined by backcountry leaders, landless poor and runaway workers and slaves looking to grab some of the Indians land. HSummer of 1676, Bacon takes over Berkeley’s Green Springs, and burns down Jamestown. HOcotober 1676, Bacon dies and reinforcements come from England

25 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The “Glorious Revolution” in England H1685: Charles II dies, and James II, a Catholic, succeeds him. H1688: Fear over prosecution of Protestants and faced with a male heir to James II, William of Orange mounts an army and invades England HJames abdicates, and Parliament grants toleration to Protestants

26 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The “Glorious Revolution” in America HBefore James II abdicated, he nullified charters for some colonies and created the Dominion of New England HSir Edmond Andros ruled the Dominion strictly and enforced the Navigation Laws. HApril 1689, a rebellion in Boston throws Andros in jail HNew Yorkers also oust Dominion officials and militia captain Leisler begins a Revolution. HMaryland, Protestants seize the government in support of the new constitutional monarchy.

27 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers CONSEQUENCES OF WAR AND GROWTH, HSalem’s Wartime Witch Hunt HThe Uneven Costs of War HStorm Clouds in the South

28 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Salem’s Wartime Witch Hunt HSalem Village, 1692 HYoung women suffer convulsive fits, hallucinations and accuse a slave couple of witchcraft. The accusations grow, and hangings ensue. HMass hysteria? Mosquito encephalitis? Posttraumatic stress brought on by war?

29 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers The Uneven Costs of War HSome benefit: HFarmers with access to ports to sell goods to fleets HWartime smuggling HPrivateers HShipbuilders HSome paid the price: HPoor people paid regressive taxes HPoor people paid wartime prices for food HPoor people died in combat or of disease

30 ©2003 PEARSON EDUCATION, INC. Publishing as Longman Publishers Storm Clouds in the South HThe Carolinas become populated by radicals from the Restoration, runaway servants, or migrants from the proprietors Carolina settlement on the Ashley River HCary’s Rebellion in 1710 recognizes North Carolina independent of Carolina H1711: Tuscarora Indians rebel against corrupt traders and land encroachment, but are defeated by settlers, and Yamasee Indians H1715: Yamasee, with the support of Creek Indians, Spanish settlers, and French traders rebel against English.


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