Presentation on theme: "Beginnings of an American Identity"— Presentation transcript:
1Beginnings of an American Identity 5-2: Roots of Representative GovernmentBeginnings of an American Identity
2The Rights of Englishmen The Magna Carta1st step toward guaranteeing rightsLimited powers of the King…Over time, rights originally granted only to nobles were extended to all Englishmen
3Parliament and Colonial Government Most important right of Englishmen … ?To elect representatives to ParliamentParliament:Bicameral LegislatureElected – House of CommonsAppointed – House of Lords
4Parliament and Colonial Government Colonists used the same modelGovernor oversaw laws made by:Bicameral LegislatureElected – Colonial AssemblyAppointed – Governor’s Council
5Parliament and Colonial Government The highest authority to govern the colonies was …PARLIAMENT
6A Royal Governor’s Rule Still … many colonists believed the King and Parliament had no right to rule them. Because…Parliament had NO representatives from the ColoniesSo … Who could rule the Colonies?Their own Colonial Assemblies
7A Royal Governor’s Rule To assert control over the colonies, King James II Created the Dominion of New EnglandAmerica was in TurmoilSmugglers were avoiding taxes established in the Navigation ActsKing Philip’s War in New EnglandThreat of the French in CanadaBacon’s Rebellion in VirginiaSir Edmond Andros, Governor the Dominion of New England
8England’s Glorious Revolution Parliament asserts controlRemoved Catholic James II from throneInvited Protestant William and Mary to rule EnglandWilliam III & Mary IIJames II
9England’s Glorious Revolution William and Mary forced to sign the English Bill of RightsEstablishes principle that: Government was to be based on laws made by Parliament, not on the desires of a ruler!
10England’s Glorious Revolution Meanwhile, back in the American colonies…Colonists detest the Dominion!!They use the opportunity of England’s political turmoil to:Arrest and jail AndrosDissolve the Dominion of New EnglandRe-establish Colonial AssembliesSir Edmund Andros!
11Shared Power in the Colonies Biggest power of Colonial Assemblies was that they paid the Governor’s salaryIdea for the structure of colonial governments originated in the …Magna Carta
12Shared Power in the Colonies Because Governors’ salaries were controlled by Colonial Assemblies, they frequently chose not to enforce unpopular laws passed by Parliament. This is called …Salutary NeglectAs a result …Colonists became used to acting on their own
13The Zenger Trial“The question before the Court and you, Gentlemen of the Jury, is not of small nor private concern nor is it the cause of a poor printer, nor of New York alone. No, it may affect every Freeman to deny the liberty of both exposing and opposing arbitrary power by speaking and writing truth.”- Andrew Hamilton, Zenger’s attorneyNewspaper publisher John Peter Zenger criticized New York’s governorAccused him of removing a judge and fixing an electionJury decided the truth was a defense against libel and released ZengerCase helped to establish Freedom of the Press in America