Presentation on theme: "Beginnings of an American Identity 5-2: Roots of Representative Government."— Presentation transcript:
Beginnings of an American Identity 5-2: Roots of Representative Government
The Magna Carta The Rights of Englishmen 1 st step toward guaranteeing rights Limited powers of the King …Over time, rights originally granted only to nobles were extended to all Englishmen
Parliament and Colonial Government Most important right of Englishmen … ? To elect representatives to Parliament Parliament: Bicameral Legislature Elected – House of Commons Appointed – House of Lords
Parliament and Colonial Government Colonists used the same model Governor oversaw laws made by: Bicameral Legislature Elected – Colonial Assembly Appointed – Governor ’ s Council
Parliament and Colonial Government The highest authority to govern the colonies was … PARLIAMENT
A Royal Governor’s Rule Still … many colonists believed the King and Parliament had no right to rule them. Because… NOParliament had NO representatives from the Colonies So … Who could rule the Colonies? Their own Colonial Assemblies
A Royal Governor’s Rule Dominion of New EnglandTo assert control over the colonies, King James II Created the Dominion of New England Sir Edmond Andros, Governor the Dominion of New England America was in Turmoil Smugglers were avoiding taxes established in the Navigation Acts King Philip ’ s War in New England Threat of the French in Canada Bacon ’ s Rebellion in Virginia
England’s Glorious Revolution Parliament asserts control James II William III & Mary II Invited Protestant William and Mary to rule England Removed Catholic James II from throne
England’s Glorious Revolution English Bill of RightsWilliam and Mary forced to sign the English Bill of Rights Establishes principle that: Government was to be based on laws made by Parliament, not on the desires of a ruler!
England’s Glorious Revolution Meanwhile, back in the American colonies… Colonists detest the Dominion!! They use the opportunity of England ’ s political turmoil to: Arrest and jail Andros Dissolve the Dominion of New England Re-establish Colonial Assemblies Sir Edmund Andros!
Shared Power in the Colonies Biggest power of Colonial Assemblies was that they paid the Governor ’ s salary Idea for the structure of colonial governments originated in the … Magna Carta
Shared Power in the Colonies Because Governors ’ salaries were controlled by Colonial Assemblies, they frequently chose not to enforce unpopular laws passed by Parliament. This is called … Salutary Neglect As a result … Colonists became used to acting on their own
The Zenger Trial Newspaper publisher John Peter Zenger criticized New York ’ s governor Accused him of removing a judge and fixing an election Jury decided the truth was a defense against libel and released Zenger Case helped to establish Freedom of the Press in America “The question before the Court and you, Gentlemen of the Jury, is not of small nor private concern nor is it the cause of a poor printer, nor of New York alone. No, it may affect every Freeman to deny the liberty of both exposing and opposing arbitrary power by speaking and writing truth.” - Andrew Hamilton, Zenger’s attorney