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Chapter 6 Contest for Continent: French America and British America, 1608-1763.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6 Contest for Continent: French America and British America, 1608-1763."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 6 Contest for Continent: French America and British America, 1608-1763

2 New France and Louisiana Too few crossed from France Soil and climate difficult to farm Huguenots = French Protestants Mostly ended up elsewhere King ordered Catholics only to New World King encouraged immigration Short indentured period Some forced immigration Population remain low 25,000 by 1713

3 Indian Friends Indian relations Conflicts in the early period Fur trade improved relations with tribes French inter-married with natives Won friendship, trust and loyalty Flooded New France with missionaries Jesuits Did not try to change culture just religion They were successful

4 Intrepid Explorers Trappers, traders, and priests explored Great Lakes area and inland Couriers de bois – lived among natives Lois Joliet & James Marquette explored down Mississippi River from Wisconsin 1682 Robert Cavelier the Sieur de LaSalle sailed down to mouth of Mississippi River 1689 Pierre le Moyne founded New Orleans Biloxi and Mobile too New Frances’ security precarious Mainly small isolated outposts Spain in Mexico and Florida

5 A Century of Conflict King William’s War, 1688 1688 to 1763, France and Britain conflicted in four major wars Innovations Muskets Drilled and disciplined armies Created supply units to prevent foraging Used men more wisely and judiciously In New World, ambush and “guerilla” tactics by militias Petite guerre Paid for scalps King William’s and Queen Ann's Wars destructive, but accomplished little Attack on Deerfield in 1704 Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 Strengthened Britain’s position in New World Brought 30 years of peace

6 Social Developments 1700-1776 Population skyrocketed Large families common Men had longer life expectancies Many women died in childbirth Most children survive infancy Colonial population growing High birth rate Lengthening life expectancy Increasing immigration

7 German and Irish immigrants Germans Most came to Philadelphia 1/3 of Pennsylvania by 1776 Members of plain-living religious sects Farmers and small businessmen Join Quaker party in politics Scotch-Irish immigrants Protestant Scots forced into Ireland Suffer economically in Ireland Come to America for land Headed west to frontier Frequently provoke Indians

8 Families and Property Patriarchal Main political unit Male heads of property-owning white families vote Property laws Designed to preserve family status in society Primogeniture: Landed estate bequeathed as a whole to eldest son Entail: Property could not be subdivided Younger children Inherit personal property Inherit unentailed estates Daughters receive dowries Eliza Lucas Sons receive professional training

9 Social Mobility Women owned land even after marriage Husband “use” land Coverture makes husband legal head of marriage Lower standing than men; higher than European women If single kept ownership of land Dower – widows received 1/3 of income from dead husband’s land Had rights to sue for divorce Lower Orders Frequently at odds with propertied classes Underclass crime similar to today Illegitimate births common

10 Slave Rebellions Slavery Not common outside of New York and South Majority in parts of Virginia and South Carolina Slave revolts in early 18th century New York 1712 and 1741 Great Dismal swamp as runaway refuge Stono Rebellion in 1739

11 Politics: Imperial and Colonial Salutary neglect: little interference with colonies Regulation like Molasses Act loosely enforced Colonial assemblies control finances Assemblies use purse strings to control governors Began to believe had right to govern

12 Religion: Decline & Revival Mellowing of churches Religion less important to educated colonials Harvard softened religion education Calvinists in response founded Yale Church of England growing in colonies & socially prestigious Used human reason to understand universe Influenced by Sir Isaac Newton Typically well-educated

13 Religious Excitement Great Awakening Was sporadic in colonies None in South Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield Emotional religious experiences Preached fear of hell New Lights, Old Lights Stresses equality, appeals to lower class Many preachers untrained, unlicensed Leads to new colleges American religious traditions: periodic revivals & many denominations

14 Britain’s Glorious Triumph Long peace ended in 1739 France joins Spain in war against England King George’s War Petite guerre plagues colonists Colonists gain Louisburg France regains Louisburg in Treaty of Aix-la-Chappelle Seven Years War becomes first world war British see North America as important battlefield French outnumbered in North America Virginia takes active role Ohio River Valley Virginians claim territory France builds forts in territory Virginia sends Washington with troops Beginning of Seven Years War Braddock’s defeat in 1755

15 Britain’s Glorious Triumph Britain’s Glorious Triumph (cont.’d) Early on poor British leadership William Pitt redefines English war effort Pitt focuses British troops in America Pays Prussians to fight in Europe Jeffery Amherst in overall command James Wolfe recognizes Quebec as key to gaining rivers Wolfe at great disadvantage to Montcalm Wolfe captures Quebec

16 Britain’s Glorious Triumph Britain’s Glorious Triumph (cont.’d) Peace of Paris in 1763 Britain gains Florida, Canada Spain gains Louisiana France loses New World empire Britain new dominant power

17 ©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning ™ is a trademark used herein under license. Map 6.1 – European Claims in North America After Queen Anne’s War

18 Discussion Questions Why was New France unable to achieve the level of population growth of Britain’s colonies? What political and social factors came into play? What was the role of women in the colonies? Were there lives better than their counterparts in Britain? What were the roots and consequences of the Great Awakening on the American colonies? Explain the outcome and importance of the series of wars fought in the colonies concluding with the Seven Years War.

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