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World History Unit 5 Absolutism to Revolution: 1500-1900.

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Presentation on theme: "World History Unit 5 Absolutism to Revolution: 1500-1900."— Presentation transcript:

1 World History Unit 5 Absolutism to Revolution:

2 Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, A.D. Section 1 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism

3 Objectives To describe Spanish power under Philip II. To explain weaknesses in the Spanish Empire. To describe the birth of the Netherlands. To explain the origins of absolute monarchy Vocabulary: Philip II, absolute monarch, divine right

4 Charles V’s Spanish Empire

5 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism Charles V –splits his Spanish empire Philip II –Charles’ son –Spain, Spanish Netherlands, American colonies King’s 1/5th –Portugal –Defender of the Faith Battle of Lepanto Spanish Armada –Arts Diego Velazquez Miguel de Cervantes –Don Quixote

6 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism Spain’s problems Inflation –population increase, price increase –drop in silver value taxes –expulsion of Jews and Moors –no middle class merchant guilds –no capitalism; wealth flowed out Dutch Revolt –occupation force –Calvinism and taxes –William of Orange United Provinces of the Netherlands

7 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism United Provinces (Netherlands) –religious toleration –republic focus on commerce –world’s largest merchant fleet –world’s bankers art –Rembrandt van Rijn wealthy merchants; groups Absolute Monarchs –rule without limits urbanization; middle class decline in church influence decline in nobility influence –divine right God’s representative

8 Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism Objectives To describe Spanish power under Philip II. Wealthiest and most powerful; Defender of the Faith; Golden Age To explain weaknesses in the Spanish Empire. Inflation, unequal taxes, out-flowing wealth, Dutch Revolt To describe the birth of the Netherlands. William of Orange, religious toleration, commerce and banking, art To explain the origins of absolute monarchy. Retain all power, divine right, rise from centralization and crises Vocabulary: Philip II, absolute monarch, divine right

9 Assessment 1) He split his empire and retired to a monastery 2) he inherited his father’s empire in Spain, Spanish Netherlands, and New World 3) title given to those who defend Catholicism 4) Spanish fleet defeated the Ottomans at this battle 5) They defeated the Spanish Armada in ) This Cervantes character was like a bumbling medieval knight 7) They paid the majority of taxes in Spain 8) These guilds kept Spain from becoming capitalistic 9) He defeated Spain in the Dutch Revolt 10) The two reasons that the United Provinces of the Netherlands were unique 1) Charles V 2) Philip II 3) Defender of the Faith 4) Battle of Lepanto 5) English 6) Don Quixote 7) peasants 8) merchants 9) William of Orange 10) religious toleration and they formed a republic

10 Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, A.D. Section 2 France’s Ultimate Monarch

11 Objectives To describe religious and political conflicts in France. To explain Louis XIV’s policies. To characterize the style of the French royal court. To identify causes and effects of the French wars. Vocabulary: Edict of Nantes, Cardinal Richelieu, skepticism, Louis XIV, intendant, Jean Baptiste Colbert, War of the Spanish Succession

12 Religious Wars Create a Crisis King Henry II & Catherine de Medicis –1559: Catherine real power –1572: St. Bartholomew’s Day Henry of Navarre –Protestant Prince (Huguenot) –inherits the throne Henry IV 1st Bourbon king –Catholic conversion –Edict of Nantes religious toleration Louis XIII –Cardinal Richelieu de facto ruler increased Bourbon power Huguenots and nobles –skepticism nothing can be known for certain Michel de Montaigne

13 Louis XIV Rules Absolutely Louis XIV –most powerful king crown at age 5 –Cardinal Mazarin Louis’ minister 1648 Thirty Years War Treaty –most powerful in Europe fight with nobles –centralization of power noble exclusion intendants –tax and justice agents –Jean Baptiste Colbert finance minister mercantilism policies –Edict of Nantes revocation

14 Louis’s Grand Style Nobility –morning dress –increased royal authority dependence on Louis kept from locales Versailles –11 miles from Paris $2B in 1994 dollars 36K laborers 500 yards long –What is similar in China? –Arts patronage Sun King glorify the king

15 Versailles Gardens

16 Louis Fights Disastrous Wars France in 1660 –largest population & army Spanish Netherlands Dutch Netherlands –‘dike’ warfare League of Augsburg –balance of power alliance –Sweden, Spain, England War of Spanish Succession –Charles II dies Philip of Anjou –Treaty of Utrecht Spain and France separate Louis XIV legacy –empire, debt, resentment

17 France’s Ultimate Monarch Objectives To describe religious and political conflicts in France. Protestants vs. Catholics civil wars; Henry IV religious tolerance; Cardinal Richelieu’s rise; skepticism embraced To explain Louis XIV’s policies. Cardinal Mazarin raises taxes / strengthens central govt.; Louis is France’s most powerful king; Jean Baptiste Colbert’s economy To characterize the style of the French royal court. Luxury; nobles waiting game; Versailles and patronage To identify causes and effects of the French wars. French expansion; European anti-French alliance; weakening Vocabulary: Edict of Nantes, Cardinal Richelieu, skepticism, Louis XIV, intendant, Jean Baptiste Colbert, War of the Spanish Succession

18 Assessment 1) This Protestant prince converted to Catholicism after gaining French throne 2) Henry was the 1st king of this dynasty 3) 1598 edict called for religious toleration 4) he was the real power behind the throne of Louis XIII 5) ‘nothing can be known for certain’ 6) France’s most powerful ruler ever 7) they were tax and justice agents 8) this economic minister advocated mercantilist policies to King Louis XIV 9) the fabulous palace built by Louis XIV 10) this 1689 alliance in Europe was designed maintain a balance of power 1) Henry IV (of Navarre) 2) Bourbon 3) Edict of Nantes 4) Cardinal Richelieu 5) skepticism 6) Louis XIV 7) intendants 8) Jean Baptiste Colbert 9) Versailles 10) League of Augsburg

19 Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, A.D. Section 4 Russian Czars Increase Power

20 Russian Czar’s Increase Power Objectives To explain how Ivan III and later Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian state. To characterize differences between Russia and western Europe and the emerging role of Peter the Great. To describe Peter’s reforms and their impact on Russia. Vocabulary: Ivan the Terrible, boyars, Peter the Great, westernization

21 From Ivan to the Romanovs Ivan III –founder of empire liberated Russia from Mongols –centralize government Ivan IV – –“good” – –czar –“terrible” – 1560 –boyars landowning nobles –traitors Anastasia Time of Troubles –battle for throne boyars –Michael Romanov

22 Russia Expansion – Ivan IV

23 Peter the Great Takes the Throne Russia in the 1600s –land of serfs and boyars mid-1850s –serfs attached to land –isolation Constantinople –Eastern Orthodox Mongol threat Peter the Great – –future of Russia warm water seaport –competition westernization –‘Grand Embassy’ –customs and technology –England, Germany, Austria

24 Russian Expansion - Peter

25 Peter Rules Absolutely Change Takes Power –Russian Orthodox Church state control –power from nobles appointing of ‘loyal’ lower class –westernized professional army heavy taxes Societal Changes –1 st newspaper –increased women status –traditional dress banned St. Petersburg –“window to the west” –water routes to Europe

26 Russian Czars Increase Power Objectives To explain how Ivan III and later Russian rulers began to build a stronger Russian state. Czars strengthen Russian state; reduce power of boyars; Ivan the ‘good’ becomes Ivan the ‘terrible’ To characterize differences between Russia and western Europe and the emerging role of Peter the Great Peter the Great takes throne; Russia is land of nobles and serfs, isolated and backwards; Peter visits and studies western Europe To describe Peter’s reforms and their impact on Russia. Peter westernizes Russia; religion under state control; limits power of nobles; modernizes army; Baltic Sea seaport at St. Petersburg Vocabulary: Ivan the Terrible, boyars, Peter the Great, westernization

27 Assessment 1) Who founded the Russian Empire in ) He liberated Russia from the Mongols 3) He was the 1 st ruler to be called ‘czar’ 4) Ivan got this nickname because of his treatment of nobles after his wife died 5) Russian landowning nobles 6) He emerged out of the ‘Time of Troubles’ in 1613 as the new Russian ruler 7) These people were ‘attached’ to the land 8) He tries to ‘westernize’ Russia 9) How did Peter pay for his new ‘westernized’ army 10) This city was the new capital and a Russian “window to the west” 1) Ivan III 2) Ivan III 3) Ivan IV 4) Terrible 5) boyars 6) Michael Romanov 7) serfs 8) Peter the Great 9)heavy taxes 10) St. Petersburg

28 Chapter 21 Absolute Monarchs in Europe, A.D. Section 5 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy

29 Objectives To identify conflicts between English rulers and Parliament. To explain the causes and results of the English Civil War. To describe the Restoration and Glorious Revolution. To explain political changes under William and Mary. Vocabulary: Charles I, English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, Restoration, habeas corpus, Glorious Revolution, constitutional monarchy, cabinet

30 Monarchs Clash with Parliament Elizabeth –last of Tudors James I –Scottish Stuarts –absolute monarchy –Calvinist –King James Bible Charles I –son of James I –calls Parliament Petition of Right –law is higher than king –dissolves Parliament –calls Parliament ‘Scot’ problem

31 English Civil War English Civil War –Parliament limit on king’s power Charles I orders arrests supporters and opponents of Charles I –Royalists vs. Roundheads –Oliver Cromwell Puritan Roundhead leader Charles I captured by 1647 –lost English Civil War –public execution rules England as military dictator puts down Irish rebellion tolerance except Catholics

32 Restoration and Revolution Restoration Charles II –son of Charles I habeas corpus –no jailing for political opposition –speedy trial James II –Charles II brother –Catholic Whigs vs. Tories –dissolves Parliament –infant son

33 Political Changes Glorious Revolution –William and Mary Prince of the Netherlands –Protestants Parliamentary invite –bloodless overthrow of James II –William as new English king Parliament recognized partner constitutional monarchy –laws limit monarch’s power Bill of Rights cabinet –prevent disagreements –link between monarch / majority

34 Stuart Family Tree

35 Parliament Limits the English Monarchy Objectives To identify conflicts between English rulers and Parliament. English kings clash w/ Parliament over money and power; Charles I dissolves Parliament To explain the causes and results of the English Civil War. Charles I recalls Parliament; Charles I supporters vs. opponents in Civil War; Puritans win civil war; Charles I executed To describe the Restoration and Glorious Revolution. Charles II as king; James II deposed; William and Mary take power To explain political changes under William and Mary. Constitutional monarchy; Bill of Rights; cabinet as center of power Vocabulary: Charles I, English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, Restoration, habeas corpus, Glorious Revolution, constitutional monarchy, cabinet

36 Assessment 1) This Scottish family followed the Tudors as the ruling dynasty of England in ) He was the founder of the dynasty in # 1 3) James I believed in this type of government 4) This English king lost his head in ) This event between brought Puritans into power in England 6) These two groups opposed each other in the English Civil War 7) This Puritan leader became a military dictator in ) He ruled following the 1660 Restoration 9) This calls for a speedy trial and no jailing of political opponents 10) William and Mary ascend the English thrown in this 1689 bloodless rebellion 1) Stuarts 2) James I 3) absolute monarchy 4) Charles I 5) English Civil War 6) Royalists and Roundheads 7) Oliver Cromwell 8) Charles II 9) habeas corpus 10) Glorious Revolution


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