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From Republic to constitutional monarchy

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Presentation on theme: "From Republic to constitutional monarchy"— Presentation transcript:

1 From Republic to constitutional monarchy
( ) From Republic to constitutional monarchy Performer - Culture & Literature Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella, Margaret Layton © 2012

2 1. Charles I ( ) Charles I succeeded his father James I in 1625. He could not avoid direct confrontation with the Puritan party, who held a considerable majority in Parliament. A. Van Dick, Equestrian Portrait of Charles I, , National Portrait Gallery, London Performer - Culture&Literature

3 2. Who were the Puritans? The Puritans
were extreme Protestants within the Church of England; thought the English Reformation had not done enough to reform the doctrines and structure of the Church; wanted to purify their national Church by eliminating every trace of Catholic influence; wanted a true balance of power between the king and the Parliament. Performer - Culture&Literature

4 2. Who were the Puritans? The Puritans
supported the Parliamentarian party; were linked to continental Reformed theology; believed that personal salvation depended on God; regarded the Bible as a guide to life; encouraged personal acts of mercy. Performer - Culture&Literature

5 3. The Civil War CAUSES Performer - Culture&Literature
Charles I believed he was king by divine right. He had continuous clashes with Parliament. He refused to give up the command of the armed forces in 1642. The war broke out in 1642. Performer - Culture&Literature

6 3. The Civil War CONSEQUENCES Performer - Culture & Literature
The King was taken prisoner in 1647. Oliver Cromwell took control of London. He expelled or arrested more than 100 members of the House of Lords. The remaining members voted for the execution of the King on 30th January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and replaced by a republic, the Commonwealth. Performer - Culture & Literature

7 3. The Civil War The two factions THE ROYALISTS sided with the king;
let their hair grow long; also known as ‘Cavaliers’ included the lords, the gentry and officials of the Church of England. Performer - Culture&Literature

8 3. The Civil War The two factions THE PARLAMENTARIANS
supported Parliament; considered long hair sinful and cut theirs short; also called ‘Roundheads’; included London, the ports, the Navy, the new gentry and small landowners, artisans and Puritans. Performer - Culture & Literature

9 4. Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) An East-Anglian gentleman farmer.
A brilliant leader in raising and training cavalry composed by brave Puritan soldiers. Commander-in-chief of the army in 1649. Appointed Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1653. Performer - Culture&Literature

10 4. Oliver Cromwell ( ) Followed a mercantilist policy and re-organised the Navy. Passed the Navigation Acts in 1651 which stated that all English imports had to be carried in ships owned by England. Performer - Culture&Literature

11 5. The Restoration of the monarchy
After Cromwell’s death in 1658, the Protectorate collapsed. In 1660 Parliament invited Charles II ( ) to return from his exile in France. The Restoration of the monarchy was greeted with relief by most Englishmen oppressed by the strict rules of the Puritans. Performer - Culture&Literature

12 5. Charles II ( ) His court was the most immoral in English history. London was struck by a bubonic plague in More than 100,000 people died. The Great Fire destroyed most of the city of London in four days in 1666. Puritans interpreted the two catastrophes as God’s punishment for the King’s immorality. Performer - Culture&Literature

13 6. The Royal Society Founded in 1662 with King Charles II’s patronage;
its motto, nullius in verba – ‘nothing by words’ – was a direct challenge to the dependence on written authorities; it became the centre of the development of the new philosophy and science. Performer - Culture&Literature

14 7. James II ( ) Charles II’s brother, James II, succeeded him in 1685. He had converted to Catholicism in His attempts to give civic equality to Roman Catholic and Protestant dissenters led to conflict with the Parliament. In 1688 his second wife, Mary of Modena, gave birth to a son. Fearing a Catholic succession, a group of Protestant nobles appealed to William of Orange, husband of James’s older and Protestant daughter Mary. Performer - Culture&Literature

15 8. The Glorious Revolution
William of Orange landed with an army in Devon in 1688 and James II fled abroad. Cooperation between Crown and Parliament became effective with the so-called Glorious Revolution. Its name celebrates the bloodlessness of the event, which saw William of Orange and his wife Mary established as joint monarchs in 1689. Performer - Culture&Literature

16 8. The Glorious Revolution
The reign of William III and Mary II was a time of economic progress for England. London became the financial capital of the world. The Bill of Rights of 1689 prevented the king from raising taxes or keeping an army without the agreement of Parliament. Performer - Culture&Literature

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