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From Republic to constitutional monarchy (1625-1689) Performer - Culture & Literature Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella, Margaret Layton © 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "From Republic to constitutional monarchy (1625-1689) Performer - Culture & Literature Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella, Margaret Layton © 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 From Republic to constitutional monarchy ( ) Performer - Culture & Literature Marina Spiazzi, Marina Tavella, Margaret Layton © 2012

2 From Republic to constitutional monarchy Charles I succeeded his father James I in He could not avoid direct confrontation with the Puritan party, who held a considerable majority in Parliament. 1. Charles I ( ) Performer - Culture&Literature A. Van Dick, Equestrian Portrait of Charles I, , National Portrait Gallery, London

3 From Republic to constitutional monarchy The Puritans were extreme Protestants within the Church of England; thought the English Reformation had not done enough to reform the doctrines and structure of the Church; wanted to purify their national Church by eliminating every trace of Catholic influence; wanted a true balance of power between the king and the Parliament. 2. Who were the Puritans? Performer - Culture&Literature

4 From Republic to constitutional monarchy The Puritans supported the Parliamentarian party; were linked to continental Reformed theology; believed that personal salvation depended on God; regarded the Bible as a guide to life; encouraged personal acts of mercy. 2. Who were the Puritans? Performer - Culture&Literature

5 From Republic to constitutional monarchy CAUSES Charles I believed he was king by divine right. He had continuous clashes with Parliament. He refused to give up the command of the armed forces in The war broke out in The Civil War Performer - Culture&Literature

6 From Republic to constitutional monarchy 3. The Civil War Performer - Culture & Literature CONSEQUENCES The King was taken prisoner in 1647.Oliver Cromwell took control of London. He expelled or arrested more than 100 members of the House of Lords. The remaining members voted for the execution of the King on 30 th January The monarchy was abolished and replaced by a republic, the Commonwealth.

7 From Republic to constitutional monarchy The two factions THE ROYALISTS sided with the king; let their hair grow long; also known as ‘Cavaliers’ included the lords, the gentry and officials of the Church of England. 3. The Civil War Performer - Culture&Literature

8 From Republic to constitutional monarchy The two factions THE PARLAMENTARIANS supported Parliament; considered long hair sinful and cut theirs short; also called ‘Roundheads’; included London, the ports, the Navy, the new gentry and small landowners, artisans and Puritans. 3. The Civil War Performer - Culture & Literature

9 From Republic to constitutional monarchy An East-Anglian gentleman farmer. A brilliant leader in raising and training cavalry composed by brave Puritan soldiers. Commander-in-chief of the army in Appointed Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland in Oliver Cromwell ( ) Performer - Culture&Literature

10 From Republic to constitutional monarchy Followed a mercantilist policy and re-organised the Navy. Passed the Navigation Acts in 1651 which stated that all English imports had to be carried in ships owned by England. 4. Oliver Cromwell ( ) Performer - Culture&Literature

11 From Republic to constitutional monarchy After Cromwell’s death in 1658, the Protectorate collapsed. In 1660 Parliament invited Charles II ( ) to return from his exile in France. The Restoration of the monarchy was greeted with relief by most Englishmen oppressed by the strict rules of the Puritans. 5. The Restoration of the monarchy Performer - Culture&Literature

12 From Republic to constitutional monarchy His court was the most immoral in English history. London was struck by a bubonic plague in More than 100,000 people died. The Great Fire destroyed most of the city of London in four days in Puritans interpreted the two catastrophes as God’s punishment for the King’s immorality. 5. Charles II ( ) Performer - Culture&Literature

13 From Republic to constitutional monarchy Founded in 1662 with King Charles II’s patronage; its motto, nullius in verba – ‘nothing by words’ – was a direct challenge to the dependence on written authorities; it became the centre of the development of the new philosophy and science. 6. The Royal Society Performer - Culture&Literature

14 From Republic to constitutional monarchy Charles II’s brother, James II, succeeded him in He had converted to Catholicism in His attempts to give civic equality to Roman Catholic and Protestant dissenters led to conflict with the Parliament. In 1688 his second wife, Mary of Modena, gave birth to a son. Fearing a Catholic succession, a group of Protestant nobles appealed to William of Orange, husband of James’s older and Protestant daughter Mary. 7. James II ( ) Performer - Culture&Literature

15 From Republic to constitutional monarchy William of Orange landed with an army in Devon in 1688 and James II fled abroad. Cooperation between Crown and Parliament became effective with the so-called Glorious Revolution. Its name celebrates the bloodlessness of the event, which saw William of Orange and his wife Mary established as joint monarchs in The Glorious Revolution Performer - Culture&Literature

16 From Republic to constitutional monarchy The reign of William III and Mary II was a time of economic progress for England. London became the financial capital of the world. The Bill of Rights of 1689 prevented the king from raising taxes or keeping an army without the agreement of Parliament. 8. The Glorious Revolution Performer - Culture&Literature


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